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Classification & Taxonomy

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Natalie Martino

on 14 November 2014

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Transcript of Classification & Taxonomy

Unit 2: Classification & Taxonomy
Old school
ARISTOTLE: grouped everything as plant or animal.

He grouped animals on if they had blood or not, laid eggs or not, etc.
MYP Statement of Inquiry: Systems transform identities and relationships.
Factual Question: How do we classify living things?
Conceptual: Why do classification systems change?
Debatable: Does changing systems change identity?

Protista: all are eukaryotic; most are unicellular
6 Kingdoms
Why do we classify things? - libraries, supermarket aisles, etc.
Classification: putting things into orderly groups based on similar characteristics.
Taxonomy: the science of describing, naming and classifying organisms.
CAROLUS LINNAEUS:: Swedish biologist, 1700's.

Developed BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE.

Genus and species named using Latin and Greek names.
Organism's genus is written first, species is written second.
Genus is capitalized; the species is written in lower-case.
Scientific names are always capitalized or written in italics.
Binomial Nomenclature
Rules:
Evidence used to classify into taxons.
Chromosomes/DNA
Biochemistry
Physiology
Evolution
Embryology
Behavior
Keeping it
classified yo!
Plants and animals
are da bomb!
Modern Classification
Domain
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Fishing Lure Dichotomous Key Lab
How did the lab go for you?
What was easy? Challenging?
New School
Three Domains:
Bacteria
Eukarya
Archaea
6 Kingdoms:
- Archaebacteria - Fungi
- Eubacteria - Plantae
- Protista -Animalia
BASED ON CELL STRUCTURE.
NOT VALID ANYMORE!
Issues with Old school:
1.) Numbers of kingdoms kept changing
(2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8).

2.)Early work based on visual observation
- Looks can be deceiving
- 99% of species are microscopic!

DNA Revolution Meets Classification
DNA is an indicator of relatedness.
As species diverge, their relatedness also diverges.
This has rovolutionized classification.

Phylogeny
The science of determining evolutionary relationships among organisms, discovered through analyzing DNA.

Phylogenetic diagrams (AKA - Phylogenetic Tree) represent the hypotheses of taxonomists.

Archaea: extreme conditions
Halophiles:
"Salt-Loving"
Habitat:

Wetlands

Guts of ruminating animals like cows
Habitat:

Salty regions where saly concentration is 5 times higher that the ocean.
Habitat:

Hot Springs

60 deg Celsius and up

High acidity &
radiation
Methanogens:
"Methane-Producing"
Thermophiles:
"Hot-Loving"
Great salt Lake, UTAH
Plant-like
unicellular
autotrophs
Animal-like
protozoans
able to move
heterotrophs
Fungus-like
use spores to reproduce
heterotrophs
can move
Examples:
Algaes
Diatoms
Examples:
Paramecium
Amoeba
Examples:
Water mold
Slime mold
Fungi
Uni or Multicellular?
Both!
Unicellular: Yeasts
Multicellular: All Others
Cell structure
Thick cell wall made of chitin instead of cellulose; same material that is in the shells of arthropods.

More closely related to animals cells than plant cells!
Organization
Classified on their reproductive structures.
Plants: eukaryote & autotrophic
7 Basic Needs of Plants
1.) Temperature
2.) Light
3.) Water
4.) Air
5.) Nutrients
6.) Time
7.) Room to grow
Eukaryote & Autotropic

Most live on land and have a way to get water.

Most have waterproof protective covering called cuticle.
Life Cycle of Plants
Sporophyte: the plant produced spores.

Gametophyte: the plant produces 2 kinds of sex cells (gametes), sperm cells and egg cells.
2 Major Divisions
Vascular: have vascular tissues (tubes that transport water).
Non-Vascular: have no vascular tissue and must be completely connected to the ground.
Non-Vascular: 3 Types
1.) Mosses: have root-like structure called rhizoid that anchor moss and absorb water.

Have long thin stalk with capsule on the end that contains spores. They live on trees and rocks.
2. Liverworts: grow flat along the ground on moist rocks and soil among streams; they look like a human liver.
3. Hornworts: look like liverworts but they have curved structure growing out of them; live in mixed soil mixed in grasses.
Vascular: 2 main divisions
1.) Spore Producers - ferns, club mosses and horsetails.
2.) Seed Producers
Seed plants have 2 types vascular tissue (xylem and phloem) and use seeds to reproduce.
Xylem (up) & Phloem (down)
Full transcript