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Hypothalamus

Don't be fooled by its size.
by

Stacey Luna

on 24 January 2013

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Transcript of Hypothalamus

HYPOTHALAMUS Size of an almond


Located inferior and anterior to the thalamus


Part of the diencephalon


Considered a structure of the limbic system ANATOMY The diencephalon is a subdivision of the forebrain including the thalamus, hypothalamus, epithalamus, and subthalamus The limbic system is a complex set of structures primarily responsible for our emotional life, and having a lot to do with the formation of memories Other areas of the brain INFORMATION IN ... DIRECTIONS OUT... Blood glucose levels Blood temperature Spinal cord Chemical composition of CSF Hormones Endocrine System Autonomic Nervous System Hypothalamus Output Input stable physiological balance Overall, the main function of the hypothalamus is to maintain homeostasis. When your body is out of homeostasis... It processes information from the body and directs functions essential for life Don't be fooled by the small size of the hypothalamus HYPOTHALAMUS FUNCTIONS it can be very serious! Autonomic Regulation Neurons from the hypothalamus descend directly to the brainstem and spinal cord in the reticulospinal tracts. These central autonomic fibers synapse onto sympathetic and parasympathetic neurons and control the function of visceral organs. Regulates Activities of the Endocrine Glands A vital function of the hypothalamus is control of the pituitary gland. The hypothalamic-pituitary connection, or neuroendocrine connection, provides a direct link between brain activity and endocrine function. Connects Physiological Responses to Emotions Examples... Blushing when embarrassed
Turning pale when afraid
Sweaty palms when nervous Other Specific Functions Salt/Water Balance
Hunger
Thirst
Sexual Drive
Body Temperature
Sleep/Wake Cycles
Growth
Childbirth
Milk production IT CONTROLS YOU! Causes of hypothalamic dysfunction include: Anorexia
Bleeding
Bulimia
Genetic disorders
Growths (tumors)
Head trauma
Infections and swelling (inflammation)
Malnutrition
Radiation
Surgery
Too much iron body temperature regulation
growth
weight
sodium and water balance
milk production
emotions
sleep cycles
development Results of a damaged hypothalamas include: X X X HYPOTHALAMUS Afferent Efferent Nerve fibers from -
amygdala
septal area
brain stem
Directly senses change -
hormone concentration
osmotic pressure
temperature of blood Nerve fibers to -
brain stem
spinal cord
Neurosecretory cells
releasing hormones
inhibiting hormones INFORMATION PATHWAYS Pinpointing the problem Research shows the following disorders usually originate in the hypothalamus. disruptions in... Diabetes Insipidus Causes Damage to the hypothalamus or pituitary gland as a result of:
Head injury
Infection
Loss of blood supply to the gland
Surgery
Tumor
There is also a form of central diabetes insipidus that runs in families. Diabetes insipidus (DI) is an uncommon condition that occurs when the kidneys are unable to conserve water due to a lack of antidiuretic hormone(ADH), which is produced in the hypothalamus, then stored and released from the posterior pituitary gland. ADH is also called vasopressin. Symptoms Excessive thirst
May be intense or uncontrollable
May involve a craving for ice water
Excessive urine volume Treatment Diabetes insipidus may be controlled with vasopressin (desmopressin, DDAVP), taken as either a nasal spray or tablets.
If treated, diabetes insipidus does not cause severe problems or reduce life expectancy. Complications Electrolyte imbalance
Fatigue, lethargy
Headache
Irritability
Muscle pains Not drinking enough fluids can lead to the following complications:
Dehydration
Dry skin
Dry mucus membranes
Fever
Rapid heart rate
Sunken appearance to eyes
Sunken fontanelles (soft spot) in infants
Unintentional weight loss Kallmann's Syndrome Causes Kallmann's syndrome is an inherited genetic disorder of the hypothalamus.

It occurs more often in males than in females.

Kallmann's syndrome is the most common form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. An inherited form of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. The hypothalamus fails to release gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH). This hormone stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to release the hormones FSH and LH. Kallmann syndrome is a condition characterized by delayed or absent puberty and an impaired sense of smell. Symptoms At puberty,most affected individuals do not develop secondary sex characteristics
the sense of smell is either diminished (hyposmia) or completely absent (anosmia)
failure of one kidney to develop (unilateral renal agenesis)
cleft lip and/or cleft palate
abnormal eye movements
hearing loss
abnormalities of tooth development
bimanual synkinesis (movements of one hand are mirrored by the other hand Treatment Treatment depends on the source of the problem, but may involve:
Injections of testosterone
Slow-release testosterone skin patch
Testosterone gels
Estrogen and progesterone pills
GnRH injections Complications Delayed puberty
Infertility
Low self-esteem due to late start puberty Hypothalamic Hamartoma Causes Hypothalamic Hamartoma is a benign tumor-like malformation or lesion on the hypothalamus. Symptoms The cause of Hypothalamic Hamartoma is not known. Treatment Complications This is a chronic condition that can negatively impact a person's self-esteem and self-confidence as they try to manage the symptoms of HH. treatment-resistant epilepsy, beginning with gelastic (laughing) seizures, but later including other seizure types
developmental and cognitive deficits
behavioral problems, including rage attacks
endocrine disturbance, most commonly central precocious (early) puberty. Treatment options for hypothalamic hamartomas and the associated seizures currently include:
Antiepileptic drugs
Surgical treatments
Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS)
Radiofrequency thermoablation
interstitial brachytherapy
stereotactic radiosurgery Female Athlete Triad Causes The triad involves the coexistence of three distinct medical conditions that may occur in athletic girls and women. It includes eating disorders/disordered eating behavior, amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea, and decreased bone mineral density (osteoporosis and osteopenia). Symptoms High caloric expenditure of exercise training along with inadequate nutrition result in a sustained negative caloric balance. This low energy availability is sensed by the hypothalamus, initiating a neuroendocrine adaptive cascade. Continuing in this state will lead to decrease in estrogen. As a result, a female's periods may become irregular or stop altogether. Hypoestrogenmia, which is part of amenorrhea, then leads to osteoporosis. Treatment Complications Medical complications involve the cardiovascular, endocrine, reproductive, skeletal, gastrointestinal, renal, and central nervous systems disordered eating
fatigue
hair loss
cold hands and feet
dry skin
noticeable weight loss
increased healing time from injuries
increased incidence of bone fracture
cessation of menses Modify dietary intake (Athletes should not weigh less than 80% of their ideal body weight)
Modify exercise by reducing the amount of time spent exercising by 10-12%.
Hormone replacement (estrogen or progesterone)
Dietary supplements such as Vitamin D & calcium But more than anything, this patient needs a multidisciplinary treatment team to address the various needs of this condition. This team could include:
Physician
Dietitian
Psychiatrist/Psychologist
Trainer/Coach
Family Members Papanek, associate professor, department of physical therapy, and director of exercise science at Marquette University, writes, “In general, orthopaedic and sports-related injuries make up a large portion of a physical therapist's outpatient practice. Physical therapists may have access to an entire team and typically can spend more time with patients than other clinicians involved in their care. For this reason, the profession is especially suited for detecting the female triad and intervening.”1 and last but not least the PHYSICAL THERAPIST 1. Papanek, P. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2003;33:594-614 In a Nutshell...
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