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PI10 Report Presentation
Transcript of PI10 Report Presentation
Symbolizes the ideal woman in the mind of Rizal.
Said to represent Rizal’s childhood sweetheart, Leonor Rivera Juan Crisostomo Ibarra Kapitan Tiago The father of Maria Clara, as far as the society knows. Sometimes lovable, and sometimes annoying. He is very biased and is only obedient to those who are higher in rank than him. He has money on a pedestal.
Symbolizes the pretentious illustrados of Rizal’s time. Padre Damaso He is a Franciscan friar and the former parish curate of San Diego. He is best known as a notorious character who speaks with harsh words and has been a cruel priest during his stay in the town.
He is the real father of María Clara and an enemy of Crisóstomo's father, Rafael Ibarra. Later, he and María Clara had bitter arguments whether she would marry Alfonso Linares or go to a convent. At the end of the novel, he is again re-assigned to a distant town and is found dead one day.
He symbolizes the bad-tempered and abusive Spanish friars of Rizal's time. Doña Victorina
de Espadaña a native who tries to act more Spanish than the Spaniards. Almost illiterate and unintelligent. Speaks little Spanish but nonetheless she considers herself superior to most people because of her pretences to Spanish affinity. Doña Consolacion Her adulation of the Spaniards leads her to imitate the very actions and attitudes of the Spanish women. She symbolizes the Filipinos in our society who are ashamed of their own race and nationality. Padre Salvi He is a Franciscan parish priest of San Diego. Because he is interested in Maria Clara, he and Padre Damaso devised a plan to break Ibarra and Maria Clara apart. They were successful. Pilosopo Tasio He is a wise man. He embodies the intelligent people, who never left the country but instead educated themselves in a religious institution. Elias He is Ibarra's mysterious friend and ally. Elías made his first appearance as a pilot during a picnic of Ibarra and María Clara and her friends.
He wants to revolutionize the country and to be freed from Spanish oppression.
He believes that justice can be obtained only through revolution --- reforms simply won't do. He symbolizes the very root of the Filipino culture before the coming of the Spaniards, which remained strong and unbroken by the Spanish culture. Sisa She is the deranged mother of Basilio and Crispin.
She has a drunkard for a husband, who does not treat her well, yet still remained a loving mother to her children.
Symbolizes the country, both beautiful and miserable, both weak and hopeful, and the way it is abused by the Spaniards. Crispin seven-year old son of Sisa. Becomes a fatal target of the blows of the parish caretaker Basilio ten-year-old son of Sisa. Survives the family travails and pursues a medical career in the Fili. Cabesang Tales
Iday, Sinang, Victoria and Andeng
Don Rafael Ibarra
Bruno and Tarsilo It was popular belief that the silhouette of the woman in the cover of Noli Me Tangere is the unfortunate Maria Clara, Crisostomo Ibarra’s lover. SILHOUETTE OF A FILIPINA This symbolism at the lower part of the cover is to be a representation for priests using religion in a dirty way, specifically Padre Damaso. A MAN IN A CASSOCK
WITH HAIRY FEET A reference to the Olympic torch, it tells everyone the beginning of the defense of honors and the start of proving themselves worthy of victory. Rage and passion are most abundant in this phase. Represents a phrase that could possibly mean everything to every single suffering Filipinos: “The rise of the revolution is now at hand.” BURNING TORCH BAMBOO STALKS Symbolizes resilience. CROSS A representation of suffering and death. It also represent a grave. Magnifies the discrimination towards Filipinos, Chinese Mestizos and Spaniards during this time towards a proper burial. A LENGTH OF CHAIN Rizal’s representation of slavery and imprisonment. FLOGS It is another symbolism for cruelties. It is a representation of Jesus Christ’s scourging before his imminent crucifixion. WHIP/CORD The cruelties present in the novel best explains the symbol Rizal used in the cover. HELMET OF THE GUARDIA CIVIL It symbolizes arrogance of those in authority. Don Tiburcio de Espadaña
Señor Nol Juan
Doña Pia Alba Don Saturnino
Albino POMELO BLOSSOMS AND LAUREL LEAVES They roughly represent faith, honor and fidelity. P0melo blossoms are utilized as loose potpourri or a mixture of dried flower petals and spices used to scent the air. It is commonly used in prayers and cleansing. The laurel leaves, also known as bay leaves, are used as crowns during the Ancient Greek Olympics wherein the best of the best are treated as heroes. Filipinos in this time wants to embody these three virtues that Rizal represented as two plants. Title Literally translated, the Latin words “noli me tángere” means, “touch me not”
Taken from John 20:17 when Mary Magdalene holds on to Jesus and he tells her not to touch him.
“Stop clinging to me. For I have not yet ascended to the Father. But be on your way to my brothers and say to them, ‘I am ascending to my Father and to your Father and to my God and your God,” Jesus said to Mary Magdalene. History Noli's Missing Chapter Chapter 25: Elias and Salome He is the only son of Don Rafael Ibarra, the richest person in San Diego
He studied in Europe for 7 years, and is the sweetheart of Maria Clara.
Symbolizes the idealism of the privileged youth "'Padre Cura! Padre Cura!' [Padre Salvi] the Spaniards cried to him; but he did not mind them. He ran in the direction of the Capitan Tiago's house. There he breathed a sigh of relief. He saw through the transparent gallery an adorable silhouette full of grace and the lovely contours of Maria Clara and that of her aunt bearing glasses and cups." (366) "However, Padre Damaso is not mysterious like those monks; he is jolly and if the sound of his voice is brusque like that of a man who has never bitten his tongue and who believes everything he utters is sacrosanct and cannot be improved upon, his gay and frank laughter erases this disagreeble impression, even to the extent thatone feels bound to forgive him his sockless feet and a pair of hairy legs which would fetch the fortune of a Mendiata in the Quiapo fair." Bamboo clumps of luxuriant foliage grew alongside the highway. In other times she would stop in their shade. Here she [Sisa] and her lover would rest; with a tender exchange of words he would relieve her of her basket of fruits and vegetables -- ay! that was like dream. The lover became husband; the husband was made into a barangay head and then misfortune started knocking at her door. "As the sun's heat was becoming intense, the soldiers asked her if she wanted rest. "'No, thank you!' she replied with a shudder."When they approached the town she was seized with terror; she looked in anguish around her; vast ricefields, a small irrigation canal, thin trees -- there was not a precipice or a boulder in sight against which she could smash herself." (166-7) "Ibarra descended, followed by an old man-servant. He dismissed the carriage with the gesture and headed towards the cemetery, silent and grave. "'My sickness and my preoccupations have not allowed me to return,'the old man was saying timidly. 'Capitan Tiago said he would have atomb built, but I planted flowed towardsrs and had a cross made."...[Ibarra] proceeded the gravedigger who was regarding them with curiosity, and greeted them, removing his salakot."'Can you tell is which is the grave that had the cross?' asked the servant."'A big cross?' [asked the gravedigger.]"'Yes, a big one,' happily confirmed the servant, looking meaningfully at Ibarra, whose features had brightened."'A cross with designs on it, tied with rattan?' the gravedigger asked again."'That's it, that's it! Like this, like this,' the servant traced on the earth the shape of a Byzantine cross."'And over the grave were flowers planted?'"'Adelfas, sampagas, and pensamientos, that's it!' added the servant filled with joy. He offered him a cigar."'Tell us which is the grave and where the cross is.'"The gravedigger rubbed his ears and replied yawning: 'Well, the cross -- I have already burned it.'"'Burned it? Why did you burn it?'"'Because the chief parish priest so ordered.'" (92-4) "Then you see the streets being tamped down by a chain gang of prisoners with shaved heads, clad in short-sleeved shirts and drawers reaching to the knees, with numbers and letters in blue; chains around their legs, half-wrapped in dirty rags to reduce the abrasion, or perhaps the coldness of the iron; joined in pairs, sun-burnt, prostrate from heat and fatigue, given lashes, and beaten with a club by another prisoner who perhaps found comfort in ill-treating others." (65) Elias -- "[S]ince he was poor and could not pay for able lawyers, he was condemned to be scourged in public and taken through the streets of Manila. Not long long ago this was in use, this infamous punishment the people call "caballo y vaca," a thousand times worse than death itself. My grandfather, abandoned by all except his young wife, was tied to a horse, followed by a cruel multitude, and flogged on every street corner, before other men, his brothers, and in the neighborhood if the numerous temples of a God of peace." (441-2) "[Dona Consolacion] took a few turns in the room twisting the whip in her calloused hands and, stopping all of a sudden in front of Sisa, told her in Spanish, 'Dance!'"...[Dona Consolacion] raised the whip -- that terrible whip familiar to thieves and soldiers, made in Ulango and perfected by the Alferez with twisted wires... And she started to whip lightly the naked feet of the mad woman, whose face contracted with pain,obliging her to defend herself with her hands." (352) "The Alferez [Dona Consolacion's husband] picked up his helmet, straightened himself a bit and marched off with loud giant strides. After a few minutes he returned, not making the least sound. He had removed his boots. The servants, accustomed to these spectacles [violent arguments between the Alferez and Dona Consolacion], wereusually bored, but the removal of the boots called their attention. They winked at each other." (355) SUNFLOWERS A unique behavior in sunflowers, known as photo tropism, is a motif that has appeared in many ancient myths and is viewed as a symbol of loyalty and constancy. The sunflower's petals have been likened to bright yellow rays of sunshine, which evoke feelings of warmth and happiness. In addition, the sunflower is often associated with adoration and longevity. Rizal’s observation towards the happiness of the Filipinos are, in the Spanish times, are only fulfilled through their giving in and bowing down to the more powerful entity: Spain. Chapter 52 Changes
The shy Linares was serious and uneasy. He had just received a letter from Doña Victorina, which read thus:
"Estim cazin: In tree deys I want to noe from U if already kild U or U kild him I no want to pas a dey mor wizout satz animal get hiz punizmen if pasez time U neber chalend I tel Don Santiago dat U neber segretary, nor waz gibing jokz to Canobas nor goz palzy to the general Don Arseño Martines I tel Clarita all iz jokin an I no gib U no cuarto mor anlez him U chalend I promiz ol U wish zo U ar alredy chalend him U I warn der ar no x-queuzes nor motib.
Ur cazsin who lav U wid hart,
Victorina de los Reyes de De Espadaña.
Sampaloc, Mondey, 7 at night." Chapter 39 Doña Consolacion
The story is told that the day following her wedding, while speaking to her husband who was at the time only a corporal, she had said "Pilipinas." ... "say Filipinas, woman! Don't be a beast. ... The lady, who was dreaming of her honeymoon, wanted to obey, and said "Felepinas." Damaso Verdolagas Bernardo Salvi “Criminals or future criminals – but why are they such? Because their peace has been broken, their happiness wrenched from them; they have been wounded in their most cherished affections. When they asked justice for protection they became convinced that they can expect it only from themselves.” – Elias, The Voice of the Persecuted, Noli Me Tangere (as translated by Soledad Lacson-Locsin) “The poor widow keeps watch over her children sleeping at her side. She is thinking of the bulls of dispensation she has to purchase for the repose of her parents’ souls and that of her deceased spouse. ‘One peso,’ she muses, ‘one peso is one week of love for my children; one week of laughter and happiness; my savings of one month, a dress for my daughter who is turning into a woman.’” – Sisa, Noli Me Tangere (as translated by Soledad Lacson-Locsin)
Rizal read Harriet Beecher Stowe’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin when he was still a student in the Central University of Madrid.
He proposed the writing of a novel at Paterno’s residence in Madrid on January 2, 1884. Present individuals were Pedro, Maximino, and Antonio Paterno; Graciano Lopez Jaena; Evaristo Aguirre; Eduardo de Lete; Julio Llorente; and, Valentin Ventura.
The plan did not materialize because of conflict of interest (Rizal: All phases of Philippine life; Others: women). This led him to write a novel alone. Idea of writing a novel
on Philippines The writing of the “Noli” Toward the end of 1884 in Madrid: finished about ½ of it
1885 in Paris: finished ½ of the second half
Germany: finished the remaining half
December 1886: Almost threw the manuscript into the fire (as cited in his letter to Fernando Canon) The man who saved the "Noli" Maximo Viola – financed the printing
1st edition in Berlin, 1887: P300 for 2, 000 copies
In token of appreciation and gratitude, Rizal gave the gally proofs, pen he used, and the 1st printed copy with a dedication (March 29, 1887) Themes/Ideas Conflict Ibarra debates with the mysterious Elias, with whose life his is intertwined. The privileged Ibarra favors peaceful means, while Elias, who has suffered injustice at the hands of the authorities, believes violence is the only option.
Ibarra’s enemies, particularly Salvi, implicate him in a fake insurrection, though the evidence against him is weak. Then Maria Clara betrays him to protect a dark family secret, public exposure of which would be ruinous. Ibarra escapes from prison with Elias’s help and confronts her.
She explains why, Ibarra forgives her, and he and Elias flee to the lake. But chased by the Guardia Civil, one dies while the other survives.
Convinced Ibarra’s dead, Maria Clara enters the nunnery, refusing a marriage arranged by Padre Damaso. Her unhappy fate and that of the more memorable Sisa, driven mad by the fate of her sons, symbolize the country’s condition, at once beautiful and miserable. As the protagonist of the novel, Crisostomo Ibarra is the character in whose character the main conflict resides. It is easy enough to identify the external conflicts:
Ibarra versus the society of his time -- its values and its prejudices;
Ibarra versus Father Damaso and, indirectly, with the other friars;
Ibarra versus Kapitan Tiago, whose very strong sense of self-preservation puts him in direct conflict with the love between Maria Clara and Ibarra. Crisostomo Ibarra Maria Clara did not really resolve the conflicts within her; she chose to escape, by entering the convent as a nun.
Rightly or wrongly, Maria Clara has been held as the ideal Filipina which, perhaps, is the reason why many Filipinas prefer to be or pretend to prefer being a Maria Clara type with all its dubious virtues.
Many had used the convent as an escape from a world that could not give them happiness or the fulfillment they crave. Maria Clara Denoument/Resolution Freedom from Spain
While she was transforming her husband she did not forget her own person. She stopped wearing the silken saya and the piña bodice and adopted European attire. She substituted for the simple coiffure of the Filipinas fake ringlets and curls. With these and her ill-fitting European costume she disturbed and upset the tranquility of an idle neighborhood…
Soon enough she thought she was pregnant and started announcing it to her friends.
“This following month, I and Dr. de Espadaña, we are leaving for the Peñinsula. I do not want my son to be born here and dubbed a revolutionary.”
She annexed a de to her husband’s surname. The de did not cost much, but it gave the name a certain status. She signed as Victorina de los Reyes de de Espadaña. This de had become an obsession with her. Neither the lithographer who made her cards nor her husband could persuade her to change her mind. (CHAPTER 43 The Espadaña couple, pp. 379 – 381, as translated by Soledad Lacson-Locsin) FAMILY DEVOTION
“My father was an honorable man. Ask those people who revere his memory. My father was a worthy citizen he made sacrifices for me and for the good of his country. His home was open to all; his table at the disposal of the stranger and the exile alike, who appealed to him in their misery! He was a good Christian. He always did what is good, and he never oppressed the weak nor caused anguish to those already in misery.”
-Crisostomo Ibarra (CHAPTER 35 The Luncheon, pp 311-313, as translated by Soledad Lacson-Locsin) SUPERSTITIOUS AND HYPOCRITAL FANATICISM ON RELIGION
“Between Capitan Tiago and this widow, and heiress of brothers and nephews, exists a holy emulation which redounds to the benefit of the church, like the competition between the steamships of Pampanga which benefits the public. Does Capitan Tiago give a scepter with emeralds and topazes to any of the Virgins? Well, Doña Patrocinio orders another scepter of gold and diamonds from Gaudinez, the goldsmith.” (CHAPTER 6 Capitan Tiago, p. 48, as translated by Soledad Lacson Locsin) PURITY AND FAITHFULNESS
“I have not travelled as you have, nor do I know a town other than your own, Manila and Antipolo,”she answered, smiling at Ibarra, for she believed everything that he said. “But since I bade you farewell and entered the convent I have always recalled and not forgotten you, even if my confessor commanded me to do so, imposing many penances…” –Maria Clara (CHAPTER 7 Idylle in an Azotea, p0. 59 – 60, as translated by Soledad Lacson Locsin) ABUSIVE POWER
“He contracted leprosy four years ago, some say by taking care of his mother; others say from having stayed long in a dump prison. He lives in the field near the Chinese cemetery. He does not communicate with anyone; everyone avoids him for fear of contamination. If you could see his dwelling! It is the house of giring-giring; the wind, the rain, and the sun come and go like needle through a cloth. They have forbidden him to touch anything that belongs to the people. One day a child fell into a ditch—the ditch was not deep. He was passing by, and helped the child get out of the ditch. The child’s father found out and complained to the Gobernadorcillo, who ordered the leper flogged with six lashes in the middle of the street, and the whip burned afterwards. That was awful: the leper fleeing from the blows, the whip-master pursuing him and the Gobernadorcillo shouting: “Learn! It is better for one to drown than to get sick like you!” –Iday (CHAPTER 28 At the nightfall, p. 248, as translated by Soledad Lacson-Locsin) PATRIOTISM, SELF-SACRIFICE, AND REVOLUTION
“Do you, Sir, also believe in the necessary evil?” he asked in a slightly trembling voice. “Do you believe that in order to do good it is necessary to do evil?”
“No! I believe in it as a violent remedy which we resort to when we want to heal a sickness. Now, the country is an organism which suffers a chronic malaise and to heal it the government has to resort to harsh and violent means if you like, but useful and necessary ones.” –Elias (CHAPTER 50 The voice of the persecuted, p. 431, as translated by Soledad Lacson-Locsin)