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Writing - Composition

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Vincent Tung

on 16 June 2014

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Transcript of Writing - Composition

At the end of this lesson, you will be able to identify the correct sequence & techniques in writing an effective essay.
WRITING
When writing, remember the following recommendations in mind:
use simple language,
use simple and clear sentences,
write well structured paragraphs (with a topic sentences supporting details and a concluding sentence),
you may use subordinate clauses but keep them short,
prefer active voice to passive voice &
avoid slang language.
SENTENCES
Make your sentences simple and clear.
A sentence always encloses a subject, a verb and, optionally, a complement.
Examples:
She tells stories.
She lies.
PARAGRAPHS
Concentrate on one main point per paragraph. Summarize this point in the first sentence
- Topic Sentence
All sentences that follow support the main point
- Supporting Sentences
The last sentence is a summary of the main point of the paragraph and is used as a transition to the next paragraph.
- Concluding Sentence
TEXT / ESSAY
The typical structure of a text is as follows:
(title)
introduction
main part
conclusion
MODES OF WRITING
Narrative
Expository
Persuasive
Technical
GENERAL CONCEPTS
NARRATIVE
stories
poems
song
personal narratives
reflective writings
skits
autobiographies
essay of experiences
recounts
cartoons
comic strips
graphic novels
fantasy/science fiction
legends
myths
memories
memoirs
stage plays
screen plays
monologues
diaries
journals
letters
EXPOSITORY
labels
lists
observations journals summaries paraphrases notes magazine articles newspaper articles reflective papers logs
letters
speeches
explanatory essays
process essays
compare/contrast essays
cause/effect essays
problem/solution essays
extended definition essays
personal
narratives
biographies
reports
brochures
PERSUASIVE
advertisements editorials brochures position papers essays of argumentation process essays letters proposals speeches public service announcements
essays of opposing ideas personal commentaries
debates
reviews
literary response essays
compare/contrast essays
cause/effect essays
problem/solution essays
extended definition essays
literary analysis essays
college application essays
TECHNICAL
letters memos emails schedules menus directories signs manuals forms recipes reports
proposals
graphs/tables
captions
directions
rules
posters
experiments
procedures
rubrics
minutes
resumes
brochure
Effective paragraphs have THREE important qualities:
UNITY: where they focus on one main idea.
DEVELOPMENT: which occurs when the idea is elaborated on in the paragraph. This elaboration usually consists of the evidence you have gathered from your research to support the point you are making in the paragraph, and
COHERENCE: where everything in the paragraph relates to and expands on the point you are making.
FINALLY
, as with all models of learning, information processing has limitations.
FOR EXAMPLE
, the model implies that thinking and learning occur in a serial (linear) processing form,
WHEREAS
we know that thinking and learning are more complex than this (it is a recursive process).
FURTHERMORE
, the model fails to take into account motivation, emotions and social interaction as elements affecting learning processes.
NEVERTHELESS
, the model gives teachers many useful starters for considering how information can be structured to facilitate learning.
EXAMPLE OF AN EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPH
TOPIC SENTENCE
SUPPORTING
SENTENCES
Source: The University of New England http://www.une.edu.au/tlc/alo/paragraph7.htm
CONCLUDING
SENTENCE
(when necessary)
LINKING DEVICES (CONNECTORS / TRANSITIONS)
- aid in the smooth transition from one sentence or paragraph to the next.
CONNECTORS
Therefore,
Similarly,
Hence,
Then,
Consequently,
Also,
Thus
ADDITION
First of all,
Another reason is,
In addition,
Also,
Moreover,
The most important reason is,
Finally,
For example,
This means that,
Equally important.
EACH PARAGRAPH
should have its own topic sentence and should focus on
ONLY ONE MAIN IDEA
or
POINT
, which is referred to as
"paragraph unity"
.
When your writing shifts to a new idea, you need to begin a new paragraph and write a new topic sentence.
[Adapted from Pacheco]
HOW TO WRITE EFFECTIVE PARAGRAPHS
A topic sentence should
NOT BE A QUOTE
. It should be your
OWN IDEA
expressed in your own words. Use quotes for support.
Make sure to use specific words in your topic sentence. A topic sentence should
NOT BE

VAGUE, TOO BROAD OR TOO NARROW


Vague Topic Sentence:
Public schools are great.
Stronger Topic Sentence:
Public schools do as well academically as private schools,according to statistics.
EXERCISE: LOCATING MAIN IDEAS / TOPIC SENTENCES
c)
A few simple changes can save water in the home.

a)
The piano is both a string and percussion instrument.

d)
The Irish came in large numbers to the U.S.
EXERCISE: THE ART PERIODS
MAIN IDEA
:
Three major art periods are Medieval, Renaissance and Modern.
SUPPORTING
DETAILS
:
Medieval art was religious and not realistic.
SUPPORTING
DETAILS
:
The Renaissance period began in the late 14th century.
SUPPORTING DETAILS
:
The Modern art period included Impressionism.
EXERCISE: THE WONDERFUL WIZARD OF OZ
MAIN IDEA:
The Emerald City was a beautiful city all in green.
SUPPORTING
DETAILS:
The houses were green marble covered in sparking emeralds.
SUPPORTING
DETAILS:
The window panes were green glass and shone in the sunlight.
SUPPORTING
DETAILS:
The pavement was made of green marble.
CONTRASTS
However,
Otherwise,
Instead of,
But,
Yet,
On the other hand,
Although,
Even though,
In contrast to,
On the contrary,
Still
EMPHASIS
Keep in mind
Remember
Most important
The best thing
The basic reason
The chief factor
Special attention...
...goes to
...should be paid to
EXERCISE: LINKING DEVICES
1. In other words
2. Morever
3. Consequently
4. However
5. In fact
6. In addition
7. As time goes by
8. For example
9. Furthermore
10. Fortunately
11. To sum up
12. Morever
Writing Effective Comparison / Contrast Essays
Point-by-Point or Alternating Arrangement
A comparison essay is an essay in which you emphasize the similarities, and a contrast essay is an essay in which you emphasize the differences. We use comparison and contrast thinking when deciding which university to attend, which car to buy, or whether to drive a car or take a bus or an airplane to a vacation site.
I.Introduction in which you state your purpose which is to discuss differences between vacationing in the mountains or at the beach
II.First difference between mountains and beaches is climate
A. Mountains
B. Beach
III.Second difference between mountains and beaches are types of activities
A. Mountains
B. Beach
IV.Third difference between mountains and beaches is the location
A. Mountains
B. Beach
V.Conclusion
In a relatively short Cause or Effect essay, it is important to remember that Cause or Effect essays are not to be about both causes and effects. On the contrary, in a short essay of 350-400 words, it is important to focus on writing about either the causes of something or the effects of something, not both. The reason for this is that it is simply not wise to try to cover too much information in a short essay.
Organization of Effects Essay
I. Introduction
II. First Effect

(of the first category)
A. Example
B. Example
III. Second Effect (of the second category)
A. Example
B. Example
IV. Third Effect (of the third category)
A. Example
B. Example
V. Conclusion
Writing Effective Cause & Effect Essays
Writing Effective Persuasive Essays
The point is that by writing to persuade, writers have the opportunity to extend their ideas to influence others and thereby affect change.A key point to remember is that when writing to persuade, your audience may not agree with you. Writing to persuade is, therefore, more demanding and more ambitious than many other types of writing.
Topical Organization -
Each Idea Presented & Supported Independently
I.Introduction
A. Speeding causes higher mortality rates.
B. Speeding causes increased gasoline consumption.
C. Speeding causes increased pollution.
D. Speeding causes a higher number of speed bumps aggravating B and C.I
I.Conclusion
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