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Astronomy, Stars, and Galaxies

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by

Erik Kellner

on 2 May 2014

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Transcript of Astronomy, Stars, and Galaxies

Astronomy and Distance
Our Sun
700,000 km
Earth
12,700 km
Jupiter
143,000km
Pluto
1,200 km
Earth to Sun - 150,000,000km
Sun to Jupiter
800,000,000km
Sun to Pluto
6,000,000,000 km
1 AU = 150,000,000km
Sun to Earth 1 AU
Sun to Jupiter
5.3 AU
Sun to Pluto
40 AU
Sun to Oort Cloud
150,000,000,000 km
Sun to Oort Cloud
1000 AU
Star is a Ball of H and He
gas, it is massive enough for
FUSION to take place
All Light in Astronomy
comes from stars. Planets,
comets, and our moon do
NOT give of their own light.
it is all reflected from stars.
FUSION
is a NUCLEAR SYNTHESIS reaction,
H --> He + light. All elements heavier than Li are made in the core of stars
1. SIZE:
Range from about 1/10 to 200 times the mass of the sun
Smaller = Dwarfs. Smallest are about the diameter of Mercury
Largest = Giants -Larger than the orbit of Jupiter
2. Temperature and Color
a. Stars are all colors
of the rainbow!
They emit light from one end of the electromagnetic spectrum to the other
b. 3,000C = Red
b. 50,000C =Blue
c.
Our Sun is about 6000C
Its peak is in yellow,
but looks mostly white
3. Brightness
a. A measure of how
much energy is
given off
b.
Depends on size
and temperature
Apparent Magnitude-

Closer a light source is, brighter it APPEARS
Absolute magnitude –
Measure of how bright it would be if we were 1AU
Birth of Stars
Stars form from a cloud of gas (nebula) leftover from dead stars
Rotate & clump together into star(s) & planets.

Life of Stars

Spend their life fusing
H
&
H
and then
He
into heavier elements.
BALANCED FORCES fusion pushing OUT, gravity pushing IN.
Bigger the mass, the FASTER they burn out (weird huh?)

Death of Stars

Smaller stars will cool off & dim, slowly burning out.
Sun-size stars will inflate to HUGE red-giants , then shrink to a dwarf
Large stars blow up in a SUPERNOVA then neutron stars
Super large stars supernova & become black holes!

Light Years
Distances from the Sun to objects OUTSIDE the Solar System in AU
• Alpha Proxima 250,000 AU
• Betelgeuse 93,000,000 AU
• Center of Galaxy 3,300,000,000 AU
• Andromeda Galaxy 133,000,000,000 AU

SPEED of LIGHT is 300,000,km/s
1 Light Year = 9,500,000,000,000 kilometers

• Alpha Proxima 4.3 ly
• Betelgeuse 1200 ly
• Center of Galaxy 50,000 ly
• Andromeda Galaxy 2,000,000 ly

Comets are objects that orbit in an ellipse from the outer reaches of the solar system and are made mostly of ice and dust
Asteroids are mostly rocky bodies that orbit closer to the sun, mostly between Mars and Jupiter (in the Asteroid Belt
Full transcript