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Somalia

A Security Assesment for the Nation of Somalia
by

Maddie Smith

on 6 January 2013

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Transcript of Somalia

Current Political Situation in Somalia - President Mohamud appointed Abdi Farah Shirdon as Prime Minister in October of 2012, and Shirdon later named a new cabinet which was endorsed by the legislature in late November of 2012.

- Mohamed Osman Jawari was recently elected as Speaker of the Parliament.

-The Somali government is gaining power, but the authority is still shaky.

- Many opposing clans present within in Somalia, all with differing agendas. Some do not acknowledge the government at all, but unity and stability are becoming more realistic for Somalia. Historical Background of Somalia - Somalia Was colonized by Britain and Italy. Both nations withdrew in 1960.

- 1969: An authoritarian regime took control of Somalia. The regime was socialist and violent. Collapsed in 1991.

- 2004: Abdullani Yusaf Ahmed was voted as president of the Transitional Federal Government (TFG).

- 2012: The transitional government ends and Hassan Sheikh Mohamud is elected as president of Somalia. Security Assessment for the
Nation of Somalia By: Maddie Devine, Daphne Assimakopoulos, Chris Van Winkle, and Sergei Meehan Current Internal Threats to Somalia Government: Current External Threats to Somalia
- Aden Bushi Abdull is the secretary of Foreign Affairs, responsible for handling all foreign threats Somalia encounters.

- Ethiopia has posed a threat to Somalia’s goal of extending their southern border, and have acted aggressively in a response to expansion. Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia in 2007.

- Britain has historically looked to assert control over a portion of the Horn of Africa that Somalia has a stake in. Although Britain has taken no military measures, it is not afraid of economically interfering. External Threats Somalia Poses to Other Nations - Somali pirates have been a major threat to international shipping on the Indian Ocean and Gulf of Aden since the early 2000s.

-NATO is currently taking action in an anti-piracy operation called Operation Ocean.

- NATO warships and air crafts have formed a "shield" that patrols the waters nearby recent Somali pirates attacks. International Actions Taken Against Somalia - 1993: The United Nations enter Somalia to provide relief for famine. They leave in 1995 due to many casualties.

- 2006: The Ethiopian government intervenes to support the Transitional Federal Government

- 1980s-present: Several nations have taken preventative measures against Somali pirates. An international coalition task force, known as Combined Task Force 150, took on the role of fighting piracy off the coast of Somalia by establishing a Maritime Security Patrol Area within the Gulf of Aden. Current Relationship With the United States - During the Cold War, the United States and Somalia became allies. The United States gained a strategic position near the Red Sea.

- The United States does not maintain an embassy in Somalia.

- The United States sends in foreign aid to Somalia, namely for drought and famine relief. Population in Somalia Sources https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html

http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,RDCI,,SOM,,4b6167742,0.html

http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12412565

http://travel.state.gov/travel/cis_pa_tw/cis/cis_1023.html#safety

http://www.aco.nato.int/page208433730.aspx

http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom1backgr2.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia–United_States_relations

http://www.criticalthreats.org/somalia

http://csis.org/publication/somalia-remains-worst-humanitarian-crisis-world

http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/kenya/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada-somalia.aspx?view=d

http://www.opendemocracy.net/daniel-branch/kenya-and-somalia-landscape-of-tension

http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/al-shabaab-and-somalias-spreading-famine.aspx

http://topics.nytimes.com/top/news/international/countriesandterritories/somalia/index.h tml

http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2863.htm

http://www.cfr.org/somalia/terrorism-havens-somalia/p9366 Current Relationship With the United States (cont.) - Relations between the United States and Somalia dramatically improved once the Federal Government of Somalia was established and President Mohamud took power.









- After the election in Somalia, the United States government released a press statement congratulating Mohamud on his victory and promised to continue working with Somalian authorities in the future. Current Internal Threats to Somalia (cont.) Drought and Famine: External Threats Somalia Poses to Other Nations (cont.) Kenya: Somali Pirates: - Kenya and Somalia have a very tense relationship, as Kenya is attempting to eliminate a Somali Islamic terrorist group known as the Al-Shabaab militia.









-The area near Somalia’s border with Kenya has been disputed and is the site of many violent incidents, ranging from large scale clashes between al-Shabaab and the central government to frequent kidnappings, and grenade attacks on buildings that are used by international aid workers. External Threats Somalia Poses to Other Nations (cont.) Canada: External Threats: Somali Pirates Video Clip The longest-held hostages by Somali pirates return back to their countries. - Somalia has a strained relationship with Canada due to the aftermath of the 1993 Somalia affair.

-The Somalia Affair was a military scandal known as “Canada’s national shame”

- Canadian air forces were abusing their power in Somalia and abusing the local inhabitants. A Somalian teenage boy was killed. This caused many Somalians to harbor negative feelings towards Canada. Assassination Attempts on the President: Video Clip - The government in Somalia has had a very complex history and there are many groups who do not agree with the transitional government in place.

- Southern Somalia is particularly unstable.

- As evidenced in the picture, several groups are fighting for authority in Somalia. - The United Nations declared famine in several regions of Somalia, notably the southern region. The famine is expected to spread further. Famine in Somalia: Video Clip Current Internal Threats to Somalia (cont.) - The famine has also impacted and killed much of the livestock . On top of that an epidemic of cholera and measles spread across malnourished individuals.






- The famine also led to a significant portion of the population relocating. This move has caused a uprising in rape against women and children. Both the al-shabaab militia group and government soldiers have been alleged rapists. Drought and Famine: - The al-shabaab militia group has banned several international aid groups from sending in relief money in 2009. Just recently, they have lifted the ban. Humanitarian Crisis in Somalia - There are roughly 1.3 million Somalis displaced internally and over a million refugees living in neighboring countries as of 2012.

- Overall, according to UNHCR, there are 3.7 million Somalis now “who are in urgent need of humanitarian assistance” as a result of conflict or food insecurity.

- An unstable food supply coupled with continuous internal conflicts are forcing Somalians to flee their homes. Additionally, this adds stress to those already displaced from their homes. Somali Background Information Area: 637,657 sq. km.
(slightly smaller than Texas)

Capital City: Mogadishu

Climate: Mostly desert

Population: 9.9 million

Religion: 99.9% Muslim

GDP per capita: $600 https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/so.html
http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2863.htm http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/al-shabaab-and-somalias-spreading-famine.aspx http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/regions/africa/horn-of-africa/somalia/al-shabaab-and-somalias-spreading-famine.aspx http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-europe-12412565
http://www.aco.nato.int/page208433730.aspx http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/country,,RDCI,,SOM,,4b6167742,0.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia–United_States_relations http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Somalia–United_States_relations http://csis.org/publication/somalia-remains-worst-humanitarian-crisis-world http://www.criticalthreats.org/somalia http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-14094503 http://www.canadainternational.gc.ca/kenya/bilateral_relations_bilaterales/canada-somalia.aspx?view=d http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom1backgr2.html http://www.un.org/en/peacekeeping/missions/past/unosom1backgr2.html http://www.opendemocracy.net/daniel-branch/kenya-and-somalia-landscape-of-tension Terrorism in Somalia - Somalia's unstable government, lack of authority, unguarded coastline, and permeable borders causes many to consider it a "terrorist safe haven".

- Terrorist groups, such as al-Qaeda, have tried to capitalize on similar countries before. http://www.cfr.org/somalia/terrorism-havens-somalia/p9366 - The al Shabaab (meaning "the youth") terrorist group in Somalia poses the greatest threat to the nation. They are currently fighting against the Transitional Federal Government and the African Union Mission to Somalia.
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