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Classical: 600 BCE - 600 CE

AP World review
by

Kat Skafidas

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Classical: 600 BCE - 600 CE

Decentralized city-states and colonies due to mountains
Peloponnesian War
Didn't have many natural resources -> They MADE and TRADED them!
Artisans
: pottery, crafting,
bronze
statues to trade
Produced and sold wine, olives, olive oil, grapes, figs
Polytheism;
statues and temples
adorning gods out of a mix of love and fear
Part of daily life, represented every aspect of life and nature
Agriculture and trade was essential, slaves treated well
Olympics, appreciation of agility as well as intellect
Innovated for aesthetics, statues of "ideal person"
Commended individualism, idealism, and
humanism
Architecture:
Columns -
Dorian, Ionian, Corinthian
Alexander the Great: Created the
Hellenistic
Era - Golden Age
Classical Era: 600 BCE - 600 CE
Inca
Centralized with no traveling, controlled trade
Mita
labor system for public works projects
Land distributed in thirds - farming, religion, nobles
Every Incan required to marry for land distribution
Terrace farming, push plow
Llama wool, cotton, leather, copper, gold, silver, potatoes, maize, peppers, metallurgy, pottery
Freeze drying
food with cornflower
Mummification of sacrificial victims, adorned and well preserved
No written language -
Quipu
: database of numbers made out of strings for
census
Distinctive clothing
for ethnic groups
Road systems and
suspension bridges
Festivals
for announcements and encouragement for workers - huge part of society
Specific time for labor and partying
1/3 of year spent partying!
Persia
Centralized with city-states ruled by satraps
Darius
,
Cyrus
,
Xerxes
Kind rulers, kept various cultures and paid slaves
Cultural diversity - religious freedom
Zoroastrianism
: Zoroaster (founder), worshiped Ahura Mazda, first monotheistic belief system
Persian gardens
greatly prided in palaces and cities
Set the stage for huge festivals in cities
Elaborate drainage systems; plumbing and
irrigation
, levy
Road systems, expanded trade and communication
Self-reliant society, powerful empire
Rivalry with Greece
; burnt to the ground by Alexander the Great
Qin Dynasty
Shihuangdi - First Emperor
Burned all books
and records
Buried 400 people alive to instill fear and power
Legalism
, warlike, involved harsh punishment
Eventually lead to peasant revolts
Centralized rule, organized armies, powerful
Although legalist government, households remained Confucian, ancestor veneration intact
Powerful engineering
Great Wall
- unified & protected China from nomads
Tomb of First Emperor & Stone Warriors
Irrigation systems & levy
Standardized trade -
Silk Road
Standard measurements
, weights,
coins
Maya
Han Dynasty
Mauryan Empire
Gupta Empire
Decentralized city-states with divine rulers
Constant wars for sacrificial victims
enemies surrounding cities
Brutal human
sacrifice
, repay gods for creation
Bloodletting done to everyone, most sacred
Agricultural societies producing maize and cacao
Terrace
farming, "
slash and burn
" techniques
Calculated
accurate solar calendar
Number system similar to Rome, concept of
zero
Mayan Code
: advanced writing system, hieroglyphics
Plotted cycles of planets, predicted eclipses
Complex tools from limestone, didn't have metal
Stone temples/pyramids
, incredible sarcophagus of Pacal showed engineering and labor
Skull-binding
: affluent infants heads bound into long, sloping foreheads
Aztec
Greece
Athens
Sparta
Rome
Centralized,
Confucian
bureaucracy
Civil Service Exam
: formal, gifted young men for government
Silk Road
flourishes: trade connects with other cultures, Buddhism spreads to China
Golden Age:
Inventions
: compass, acupuncture, seismograph, iron plow, water wheel, silk, paper-making (record keeping)
Medical advancements: doctors' remedies, diagnosed diseases, circulation of blood
Entertainment: public music and art
Decline: eunuchs vs. in-laws -> anarchy & plagues
Caste system: occupations hereditary
Centralized monarchy with king consults council for major decisions
Exploration and trade by sea
Monsoon
winds helped with trade
Tradesmen mastered art of predicting winds
Standard weights
and measurements
State and privately owned farms
Food
expiration dates
and "made in" labels
Mostly Hindu, but Buddhism in Ashoka's reign due to denial of war
Building of
Ashoka's pillars
(Buddhism)
Wood buildings and stone pillars hauled from quarries and reservoirs
Less centralized with tributary states
King with with judicial courts
Older, affluent men ruled in government
Paid in land
Hindu society with Caste system
Guilds
, skilled work groups
Established working hours, wages, quality
Golden Age:
Schooling science and math achievements
Plastic surgery
, c-section, area of triangle, value of pi,
zero
,
heliocentric
theory
Advanced system of numbers and decimals
Warfare
and religion believed to be essential part of society
Burned other empires' temples
Conquered for sacrifices
Traded/harvested corn, fruits, spices, chocolate;
Cacao
was form of currency
Mostly simple, vegetarian diet (wealthy-bugs)
Chinampas
: floating gardens, man-made farming
Worshiped sun and made sacrifices for gods, needed to constantly please them (
lived in fear
)
Bloodletting: Animal and human blood - godly
Beheading, arrow-shooting, burning, skinning
Affluent often tattooed, dyed colorful paints
Schooling for everyone, customized to social role
Hieroglyphics, writing and math systems
Clothing defined class
Democracy, elected representatives, well-rounded
Women had no rights under law, not citizens, seen as part of the household to care for families as husbands worked
Boys focused on many studies in order to grow into well-rounded individuals
Artistic: drama and art - plays and festivals
Symposium
Pottery and theatre portrayed different parts of daily life
Philosophy: Socrates, Plato, Aristotle
Epic literature: Iliad and Odyssey
Militaristic oligarchy
Valued women just as much as men
"Carriers of great warriors"
Did the dirty work back home as men were off to war
Boys went into intensive military and physical training at a young age with brief schooling of reading, writing, arithmetic
Republic to Empire; Caesar to Octavian (democracy to tyranny)
Centralized empire, despite how expansive it grew from conquering
Road systems
connected empire, communication; milestones
Plebeians: affluent | Patricians: working class
Natural Law
(Twelve Tables): Civil and criminal law, all citizens innocent until proven guilty
Pax Romana (peace): Golden Age
Architecture:
arches
,
aqueducts
, Colosseum
Agriculture & trade: Silk Road and Mediterranean
Latin language, Roman numerals
Innovated for
practicality
over aesthetics
Polytheism (based on Greek myth) -> persecuted Christians -> Christian acceptance -> Christianity is main faith (Roman Catholic Church)
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