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Assignment 1 Acute Responses to Exercise

Unit 2 The Physiology of fitness
by

Miss Watson

on 5 July 2017

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Transcript of Assignment 1 Acute Responses to Exercise

P2 /M1 Cardiovascular Response
When exercising the muscles require a constant supply of oxygen and nutrients, as well as needing the CO2 they produce to be taken away. It is the hearts job to reach these demands.To meet the demands of the exercising muscles, the heart has to pump harder and faster as more oxygen is required.
If this is repeated regularly, then over time the heart will become stronger.


Heart Rate Anticipatory Response
KNOW THE BODY'S RESPONSE TO ACUTE EXERCISE
P1/M1 Musculoskeletal Response
The musculoskeletal system consists of muscles, bones, tendons, cartilage and ligaments. These support your body and enable it to move.

Each part of the system is operated by the nervous system, which has its main control centre in the brain, this creates voluntary movement such as kicking a ball.

The body moves through different muscle contractions, these contractions are initiated by the nervous system. Every muscle has an insertion in a bone, therefore when the muscle contracts the bone is pulled towards the contracting muscle.

The skeletal system provides structure for the body, whereas the muscular system facilitates movement, helps to maintain posture, and can also produce heat through contracting. All organisms require energy. Including the human body, which requires energy to move. Energy can be generated in different ways depending on the duration and the intensity of the activity being performed.

UNIT 2 THE PHYSIOLOGY OF FITNESS
P1 / M1 Energy Systems
Acute Musculoskeletal Response
The short term effects of exercise on your muscles include an increase in temperature and metabolic activity. As a result of this increase in metabolic activity there is greater demand for oxygen. With this increase the heart will beat harder and faster to accommodate cardiac output.

For example activities e.g. sprinting that consist of short bursts of effort require the body to produce energy at a high rate over a short period of time. Therefore increased blood supply will deliver greater amounts of oxygen as the heart pumps blood quicker around the body, as well as capillary dilation which allows more blood to flow through the capillaries.
Increased Blood Supply
Increase in Muscle Pliability
Increased Range of Movement
Muscles become more pliable when they become warm, this helps to reduce the risk of injury.

This is because, during exercise the muscles contract quickly. These fast contractions generate heat, which makes the muscles more pliable.

For example: when you continuously stretch an elastic band, it generates heat. Therefore, the warmer it is the further you can stretch it each time without it snapping.

*Pliability - relates to the stretchiness of your muscles and connective tissue.
The short term effects of exercise on your skeletal system are demonstrated by changes within the joint. Movement of the joints stimulates the secretion of synovial fluid. During exercise the synovial fluid becomes less viscous and therefore the range of movement at the joint will increase.

Most exercises increase your range of motion because they stretch out your muscles. As you carry out the exercise, the muscles will begin to extend more which will allow the joints to be able to move further. Acute exercise lasts for the length of a training session.

*Viscous - the measure of resistance (thickness) of a fluid.
Muscle Fibre Micro Tears
Muscle Fibre Micro Tears are tiny tears that occur in muscles when they are put under pressure whilst exercising.

These micro tears in the muscle tissue cause swelling, which puts pressure on the nerve endings which results in pain.

Training improvements will only be made if they body has sufficient fuel and rest to repair these micro tears, making the muscles a little bit stronger than it was before.
All organisms require energy. Including the human body, which requires energy to move. Energy can be generated in different ways depending on the duration and the intensity of the activity being performed.

Activities that consist of short bursts of effort require the body to produce large amounts of energy at a high rate over a short period of time e.g. sprinting.

Activities like marathon running or endurance cycling require continued energy production over a longer period of time at a slower rate.

Energy is required in order to make the muscle fibres contract. This energy is obtained from the oxidation of foods particular carbohydrate and fat. When these substances are burned in the muscle cells, ATP is formed.

When ATP is broken down, it gives energy for muscle contractions. The resynthesis of ATP occurs through the energy pathways
ATP-PC system
Lactic Acid system
Aerobic energy system
ATP and creatine phosphate make up the ATP-PC system. It is the immediate energy system. Creatine phosphate (PCr) is a high-energy compound stored in the muscles. When exercise intensity is high, or energy needs are instantaneous, creatine phosphate is broken down to provide energy to make ATP. When the high energy bond in PC is broken, the energy it releases is used to resynthesise ATP.

In this process, ATP is usually made without the presence of oxygen. Explosive work can be achieved, but only for short periods (up to about 10 seconds) at maximum intensity, as the supply of PC is limited.
ATP-PC System
Lactic Acid System
The Lactic Acid System is a short-term energy system that is used when energy is required for a longer period of time at high intensity e.g 400m. ATP can be made by the partial breakdown of glucose and glycogen. This is an anaerobic process and therefore not sustainable over a long duration (60-90 seconds) of maximal work.



Aerobic System
The aerobic energy system is a long-term energy. If plenty of oxygen is available, as it is during everyday movements and light exercise, glycogen and fatty acids break down to yield large amounts of ATP. This produces carbon dioxide and water, which do not affect the muscles' ability to contract.

Aerobic energy production occurs in the mitochondria of the cells. These are the power stations of the cells, responsible for converting the food ingested by the cells into energy. The production of energy within the aerobic system s slow to engage because it takes a few minutes for the heat to deliver oxygenated blood to the working muscles. Long, continuous and moderate exercise produces energy using this system.
ATP PC:

ADP + creatine phosphate ---> ATP + creatine

Lactic Acid:
Glucose ---> 2ATP + 2 lactic acid + heat

Glycogen ---> 3ATP + 2 lactic acid + heat

Aerobic:
Glucose + oxygen ---> 38 ATP + carbon dioxide + water + heat

Fatty acids + oxygen ---> 129 ATP + carbon dioxide + water + heat
Energy System Equations
The body's ability to extract energy from food and transfer it to the contractile proteins in the muscles determines your capacity to exercise for different durations at different intensities.

Thousands of complex chemical reactions are responsible for this energy transfer. The body maintains a continuous supply of energy through the use of ATP.

ATP consists of a base (adenine) and three phosphate groups. It is formed by a reaction between an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule and a phosphate. ATP is a versatile molecule that can be used for many things. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds in the molecules. When a bond is broken, energy is released. When a bond is made, energy is stored. When ADP binds another phosphate, energy is stored that can be used later. When a molecule of ATP is combined with water, the last group splits off and energy is released.

The energy systems of the body can function aerobically (with oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen.) Movements that require sudden bursts of effort are powered by anaerobic systems, whereas prolonged activities are aerobic
Energy Continuum
The body's ability to extract energy from food and transfer it to the contractile proteins in the muscles determines your capacity to exercise for different durations at different intensities.

Thousands of complex chemical reactions are responsible for this energy transfer. The body maintains a continuous supply of energy through the use of ATP.

ATP consists of a base (adenine) and three phosphate groups. It is formed by a reaction between an adenosine diphosphate (ADP) molecule and a phosphate. ATP is a versatile molecule that can be used for many things. Energy is stored in the chemical bonds in the molecules. When a bond is broken, energy is released. When a bond is made, energy is stored. When ADP binds another phosphate, energy is stored that can be used later. When a molecule of ATP is combined with water, the last group splits off and energy is released.

The energy systems of the body can function aerobically (with oxygen) or anaerobically (without oxygen.) Movements that require sudden bursts of effort are powered by anaerobic systems, whereas prolonged activities are aerobic
Energy Continuum
All three energy systems are operational at any one time, however depending on the intensity and the duration of the activity, different energy systems will be the primary provider.
Energy Requirements for Different Activities
Before exercise, your heart rate usually picks up as a result of the anticipatory heart-rate response. When we think about exercise before we actually start exercising, the nerves that release the chemicals that adjust your heart rate increase the heart rate.

This is because the body anticipates exercise and therefore prepares for the activity, increasing the amount of oxygen being delivered to the muscles so that they have an adequate supply of oxygen for when they begin exercising. The rate that the heart reaches before the start of exercise is called the anticipatory heart rate. The greatest anticipatory heart rate response is observed in the sprint events.
Activity Response
Activity response is similar to that of the heart rate anticipatory response. At the start of exercise, the nerves in the brain (in the medulla) detect cardiovascular activity. The nerves then send out chemical signals to increase the heart rate, as well as the strength at which the heart is pumping. This means that more blood, which carries oxygen, is delivered to the exercising muscles at a faster rate.

Regional blood flow is also altered to meet the correct proportions against the intensity of the activity being carried out. This means that some areas will have a higher blood flow if they are exercising such as the biceps, in comparison to areas that are not exercising and therefore require less blood such as the liver.
Blood Pressure
Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against the walls of the arteries.There are two different types of blood pressure; systolic and diastolic.

Systolic blood pressure - the highest pressure within the bloodstream, which occurs during each beat when the heart is in systole (contracting).

Diastolic blood pressure - the lowest pressure within the bloodstream, which occurs between beats when the heart is in diastole (relaxed - filling with blood).

During aerobic exercise, oxygen consumption and heart rate increase in relation to the intensity of the activity. Systolic blood pressure rises progressively, while diastolic blood pressure stays the same of decreases slightly. This means that the pulse rate will rise and the blood flow to the muscles increases.



Vasodilation & Vasoconstriction
Vasodilation
Thermoregulation is regulating body temperature; the cardiovascular system plays a role in thermoregulation. If the body temperature becomes too high, blood vessels just under the surface of the skin dilate which means that they increase in size.
This is called vasodilation.
Due to the increase in surface area, more heat can be transferred across the skin and out into the air, the loss of heat therefore cools the body down.

Vasoconstriction
On the other hand, if body temperature becomes too low, the vessels constrict which means that they decrease in size.
This is called vasoconstriction
. This means that less heat will be lost through transfer across the skin and into the air as there is a smaller surface area; therefore more heat remains in the body.
P2 / M1 Respiratory Response
Respiratory Response
Increased Breathing Rate
Increased Tidal Volume
Breathing is controlled by a respiratory centre found within the medulla oblongata. The centre is sensitive to pH levels in the blood and recieves information via chemoreceptors around the body which detect the change in pH levels. The change in pH indicates a change in carbon dioxide concentration.

During acute exercise the changes to the respiratory system include:

•Increased ventilation (provided by an increased tidal volume and increased respiratory rate)

•Increased diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide at the alveolar-capillary interface due to increased surface area and increased concentration gradients of oxygen and carbon dioxide

Neural and Chemical Control
Cardiovascular Response
Exercise results in an increase in the rate and depth of breathing. During exercise your muscles demand more oxygen and the corresponding increase in carbon dioxide production stimulates faster and deeper breathing. The capillary network surrounding the alveoli expands, increasing blood flow to the lungs and pulmonary diffusion.

A minor rise in breathing rate prior to exercise if known as an anticipatory rise. When exercise begins there is an immediate and significant increase in breathing rate, believed to be a result of receptors working in both the muscles and joints.

After several minutes of aerobic exercise, breathing continues to rise, though at a slower rate, and it levels off if the exercise intensity remains constant. If the exercise is maximal, breathing rate will continue to rise until exhaustion. After exercise the breathing rate returns to normal, rapidly to begin with and then more slowly.
Breathing is a complex process controlled by a respiratory centre found within the medulla oblongata. The centre is sensitive to pH levels in the blood and receives information via chemoreceptors around the body which detect the change in pH levels.

Increases in the rate and depth of breathing are detected by stretch receptors in the lungs. The respiratory centres of the brain (medulla and pons) send nerve impulses to the respiratory muscles to control breathing frequency and tidal volume of each breath.

When altering depth and rate of breathing, these centers are responding to central and peripheral information. Other information comes from chemoreceptors, such as those in the aortic arch and carotid bodies, which respond to changes in partial pressure.
Tidal volume is the amount air inhaled and exhaled with each breath. This is usually around 500cm cubed when the body is at rest. Of this, only two-thirds reaches the alveoli in the lungs where gaseous exchange occurs. During exercise, tidal volume increases to allow more air to pass through the lungs. The volume of air passing through the lungs each minute is known as minute volume and is the product of breathing rate and the amount of air taken in each breath.

Tidal volume is elevated by both aerobic and anaerobic exercise. During exercise, oxygen is depleted form your body, triggering a deeper tidal volume to compensate.
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