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Social Services in the United States and Austria
Transcript of Social Services in the United States and Austria
A Comparative Study Social Services POVERTY RELIEF Environmental Protection:
National Parks Education Healthcare The first national park was established in 1872 in the United States (Yellow Stone)
Austria Developed their first national park in 1981 (Hohe Tauern). HISTORY Funding The US pays for their National Parks through tax money and grants.
Austria pays for their National Parks through a joint effort of the Federal government and the Province The US and Austria cover about the same percentage of land in parks.The US is 2.1% while Austria is 2.8% The purpose of the National Parks is to educate and conserve. Some of the greatest natural landmarks have been conserved because of National Parks. National Parks also provide a variety of enriching and enjoyable educational programs as well as many ways to get out and see the world and nature The US has over 400 national Parks. Austria has 6. In both nations, domestic poverty relief is addressed through welfare. How do the United States and Austria approach Poverty Relief? What is Welfare? Welfare is based on principles of social and economic equality and manifests itself in government as a social program involving redistribution of wealth in order to promote the well-being of the nation’s citizens. What are the types of Welfare? Liberal
(Austria) Social Democratic
(Nordic States) Liberal Welfare State
(USA) Conservative Welfare State
(Austria) Means-tested assistance
Benefits to low-income, usually working-class, state dependents
Modest universal transfers
Modest social-insurance plans
Characterized by liberal work-ethic norms
Modest poverty reduction
Breeds hostility between economic and social classes Insurance-based
Extensive social protection to all
Characterized by status preservation
Influence of the church - Preservation of traditional family
Notable poverty reduction Individualism Collectivism Why are these systems so different? Poverty Relief: A Timeline 19th Century
Late 19th Century
1980s/1990s "The Social Question" Corporatist-Statist Poverty Relief
+ Market Universalism Liberal Welfare
State Social Democratic
Welfare State Conservative
Welfare State The Numbers Average % change of poverty after
taxation and redistribution Austria: 72.2%
Maintaining and operating the school
Teacher and staff wages
Books Considerations Private vs Public Private schools are paid for by the attendee
Public schools are funded by the Austrian government. Provincial Government Federal Government Universities Act What about the United States? Distribution &
Public Universities payment of overheads
purchase of equipment and teaching aids
provisions for the school doctor
employment of the necessary staff teacher’s salaries
compensate provincial costs at the end of the fiscal year
teachers are therefore hired by the federal government and not by the school 2002
Complete autonomy from the state to handle their internal affairs and draft their statutes, although the state continues to finance them.
Paid through 2006.
Now pays on negotiations every three years based on performance. Spends up to $500 billion on public elementary and secondary education.
Involves federal, state and local level. Federal funds distributed to States that do with it what they want.
Inequality: Funding based on property tax for some states.
Teachers have to “dig deep” into their own pockets. Subsidies
Out-of-State Tuition Higher
Didn’t pay state taxes. What is missing from the U.S. system?
Is something missing? What is Healthcare? The United States and Austria are both:
So, why are they so different?
3 Aspects Basic Principles: Austria
Spread of Risk
Service, not Profit USA:
The government only provides public healthcare based on need to those who qualify Service: Austria
Some by occupation
Private is usually only supplementary Service: USA
Public is government-funded and need-based, only for qualifiers
Private is much more dominant Political History: Austria
Imperial Influence (quote)
Began with workers' benefits
1888 = Individual Accidenal and Health Insurance Scheme Political History: USA
No Imperial Precedent Set
Beginnings after Revolution
18th and 19th Centuries
American Association for Labor Legislation
Social Security Act of 1935 Political History --> Different Foundations and Priorities --> Different Healthcare Systems