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History of Computers
Transcript of History of Computers
Referred to a machine rather than a person Modern Definition: (Neumann's Concept) A device that accepts input,processes data,stores data,
and produces output Abacus 14th Century An instrument for performing calculations by sliding counters along rods or in grooves 17 Century The Slide rule A device used for calculation consisting of a ruler and movable middle piece, graduated with similar logarithmic 1642-Pascaline A mechanical calculator, built by Blaise Pascal 1st Generation (1940-1956) Vacuum tubes used as circuitry Data written to magnetic drums and tape ENIAC First electronic, large scale, general-purpose computer Reprogrammable, but had no software so it had to be done by hand EDVAC Created in 1944 Operations governed by program memory Stored program concept allowed programs to be reused UNIVAC Introduced by Remington Rand in 1951 First commercial computer Software – High-level languages start to appear, FOTRAN, COBOL, LISP 2nd Generation (1956-1963) Hardware – Transistors take the place of vacuum tubes, RAM available with magnetic cores, secondary storage supported by magnetic disks 3rd Generation (1964-1971) Integrated Circuits on chips reduced size and price improved reliability and speed 4th Generation (1971-Present) All hardware and software were available or being developed Social, economic, and personal factors supported the revolution Personal Computer Revolution Intel 4004 chip: 4004 translators Gary Kildall wrote Intel microprocessor’s OS Microsoft Created by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975 The two built a BASIC processor High-level language for minicomputer programmers Apple Created by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak They offered Apple I in 1976 Next year developed and released Apple II based on Motorola 6502 processor Era of Minicomputers Minicomputer industry grows Minicomputer makes first appearance UNIX created free for educational institutions 5th Generation (Present and Beyond) Parallel computing Also known as parallel architecture CPU's joined for simultaneous task execution Approaches SIMD Stream– Single Instruction, Multiple Data MIMD Stream – Multiple Instruction, Multiple Data Internetworking The Three Used Uses Parallel computing Amplifies computer power Can be hosted by local networks as well as the internet Development A product of needs and wants Purpose of historical study To avoid mistakes and emulates triumphs The End