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TOK Presentation

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Ecem Kumbasar

on 30 October 2013

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Transcript of TOK Presentation

TOK Presentation
by Ecem Kumbasar

Real Life Situation
Elif Safak's book being printed with two different covers (one with a color of pink, and the other with black)
"girlish" / "boyish" colors
baby showers and babies' clothes/ presents/ towels/ etc.
colors used in toys, bags, clothes, books, etc.
RESULT: being prejudiced against men who prefer pink
creates a picture in people's minds that engineers are always right and reliable
mental map: engineers make no mistake and are flawless
a situation: engineer vs. doctor: more likely to interpret engineer's opinion as the correct way of thinking.
Knowledge Issue
To what extent do stereotypes and prejudices influence our actions and attitude toward knowledge?
How are stereotypes and prejudices formed?
by the society we live in
its culture
(parents/ teachers/ friends/ print and social media)
"All French dress fashionably."
My own stereotype affected the way I perceive French people's sense of fashion
It was due to the stereotype in my mental map that I overestimated their sense of fashion.
From the novel 1984 by George Orwell
a society that is indoctrinated with the solgans, mottos and overall power of the Party
are stereotyped against anything that doesn’t concur with Party’s mottos or point of view
mental maps: wouldn’t allow them to accept anything other than what Party claims
are prejudiced against every thought and everyone against the Party as they have strict stereotypes
Areas of Knowledge and Further Examples
the play "The Crucible" by Arthur Miller
evolves around the Salem witch trials that took course in the late 17th century
innocent and innocuous people are indicted for witchery
when an innocent is accused of witchcraft, people automatically hold a position against them
prejudices and stereotypes: they stand against those innocent and don’t give them a chance to explain themselves
mental maps: that they perceive someone accused of witchery as a threat to society and give them no chance to articulate their own thoughts or explain themselves
the witchcraft issue really took place in history
a well-known example
people are born into and raised in a society where a majority believes that there is one ultimate creator of the entire universe
tendency to stand against Darwin’s theory of evolution
a stereotype, which is God in this case, can influence our attitude toward knowledge
the whole concept of maths is actually based on assumptions
Radical Empiricism: impossible to prove something that we cannot perceive with our sense organs
Therefore, according to Radical Empricism, Maths would be an area of knowing that is not really reliable, whereas, today, we use mathematical operations and its concepts to prove many things
accept those concepts to be true and form a mental map
: demonstrates how the AOK maths and stereotypes that we form in that field of knowing, influence our attitude toward other knowledge
growing up/ all intrpduced to influential artists and their pieces of art
e.g: Mozart, Beethoven, Chopin, Pablo Picasso, Salvador Dali/ FAMILIAR
inclined to love their art pieces
our mental maps are formed with our prejudices and stereotypes
(those stereotypes and prejudices are formed by the society we live in and the media)
ideas or concepts that are indoctrinated in us as we grow up shape our vision and perspective, and eventually lead our judgment and actions
people create their own mental maps
No matter what people around us say or think, it is us who shapes our own vision and perspective
Mozart/ Beethoven example
Darwin’s theory example (people who believe in Darwin’s theory increase day by day despite the stereotype that God created everything in the universe)
memes and photos wandering on the Internet that prove some mathematical operations wrong
Therefore: cannot claim that one’s mental map and his perspective, actions and attitude toward knowledge are shaped by our stereotypes
relate to RLS! (there are men who bought the pink-covered book and read it without getting offended as well as those who refused to read a book with that cover.)
The stereotype of pink being a feminine color affected the actions of some men that there transpired the necessity to print the same book with a more masculine color, which is black
Although there were men who preferred to buy and read the book with the pink cover, those who preferred the black-covered book over the pink had their actions and perspective shaped by their stereotypes and prejudices. On the other hand, women had no problem reading a pink-covered book as they are FAMILIAR with this color as they grow up.
The Concept of Familiarity
encounter often in our daily lives
what we are raised up with comes to us as familiar and normal
“I am familiar with this subject.”: we have encountered this subject many times in the past and are therefore used to it now
1st example: an example from our everyday life: fruit and vegetable example: with time, our culture changes, and with the changing culture our actions also alter
2nd example: attitude of the majority toward gay relations
Many people are inclined to perceive a man-to-man or a woman-to-woman relationship as “abnormal” and “out of usual”.. It is their being more familiar with a man-to-woman relationship that actually makes them view gay relations as “abnormal”.
In the earlier years of human history, as early as the time of many great philosophers such as Socrates, gay relations were perceived at least as normal as a woman-man relationship.
From these two examples, I extracted a second Knowledge Issue:
To what extent does culture affect people’s perception?
the gay relationships issue (AOK: ETHICS)
SAN FRANCISCO/ (hang blue towels or flags from their balconies) SAUDI ARABIA
: Culture affects in great amounts people’s perception.
People can stand against the culture of their own society. A gay man in Saudi Arabia may as well hang a blue towel from his balcony since it is not illegal to do such a thing. Despite the prejudices of the society against gay people, one may explicitly articulate with words or show with actions that he is gay.
Original Knowledge Issue
To what extent do stereotypes and prejudices influence our actions and attitude toward knowledge?

culture, society and media form our stereotypes and prejudices
one may have his actions and attitude toward knowledge shaped by those stereotypes
However, we cannot say that everyone has their attitude toward knowledge and actions shaped by the stereotypes.
People form their own mental maps: it is up to them to get influenced or not influenced by the society’s stereotypes and prejudices.
Let's Return to our RLS...
The reason why men found it offensive to buy a book with a pink cover is mainly
due to the society’s prejudices
. They are concerned about what people may think about them if they buy and read something with a feminine color.
Nevertheless, the fact that there were also men who bought the pink-covered book shows that
people are free to respond in any way to this stereotype
that pink is a “girlish” color. They may either prefer the black-covered book or may go for the original one if they don’t find it offensive despite the prejudices of the society. This again proves that
people create their mental maps on their own and are free to involve or not involve the society’s stereotypes and prejudices in their mental map and judgments.
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