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Nutrition

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Charity Strauch

on 22 April 2016

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Transcript of Nutrition

Nutrition
In the Body
Being in good Health means more than Just
being free from disease!
Proper Nutrition plays a key role in our overall health and well-being!
Nutritional Status
The condition of the body resulting from the nutrient content of the food we eat in relation to our nutritional needs, and from the ability of our bodies to digest, absorb, and use those nutrients.
Factors that Influence our Nutritional Status
1. having enough nutritious & safe food to eat
2. availability of clean water
3. good sanitation and clean living conditions
4. access to health services
5. knowledge and ability to feed and care about ourselves
If any of the Nutritional Status factors are missing, malnutrition can occur!
Malnutrition
A condition that results from inadequate nutrition due to lack of nutrients or an overabundance of nutrients.
Reasons for Malnutrition
variety and balance in the diet
right amount and types of food needed by individuals
best way to prepare foods from a nutritional standpoint
poor eating habits
cultural and religious practices
Most nutrients cannot be produced by the body and must be taken in adequate amounts from the food we eat in order for good health and nutritional status
Obesity
An extreme form of overweight
resulting from an accumulation
of excessive amounts of body fat.
The Problems of
Overnutrition
caused by an imbalance between the amount of energy in the diet and the amont of energy used through activity and normal body processes
Obesity Increases the risk of Chronic Diseases such as....
Type II Diabetes
Hypertension (high blood pressure)
Stroke
Heart disease
cancer
joint problems
gall bladder problems
decreased mobility
difficulty breathing
Obesity Fast Facts
1. more than 2 in 3 adults are overweight or obese
2. More than 1 in 3 are considered obese
3. More than 1 in 20 people are considered morbidly obese
4. About 1/3 of children ages 6 to 19 are overweight or obese.
5. More than 1 in 6 children ages 6 to 19 are considered obese.
This video portrays a very accurate and yet consequential portrayal of how the food choices that we and our family members make from the time we are very small impact our future health. For the next ten minutes, I want you to think about and write down your thoughts of how you think you and your family have impacted your overall health in a positive or negative way nutritionally speaking. In order to do this, you must be honest with yourself on the choices you make daily and how nutritious your family eats!
Day 4:
Importance of
achieving and maintaining
a healthy Body size
we need balance in our calories!
calories
: a unit of energy supplied by food
Calories consumed from foods need to be balanced by the calories used in normal body functions , daily activities, and physical activities
If you are...



your energy status is ...
...maintaining your weight
...in balance

You are eating about the same number of calories that your body is using. If you continue to stay in balance, your weight will remain the same
...gaining weight
...in calorie excess
You are eating more calories than your body is using. Your body is storing these extra calories as fat, so you are gaining weight.
...losing weight
... in calorie deficient
You are eating fewer calories than you are using. Your body is using its fat stores for the energy it needs so you are losing weight.
Term 1
Fill out Listening Guide for video!
Do Worksheet on the Day in the Life Of a Middle School
Empty Calories vs Nutrient Density
Objective:
Explore the difference between nutrient dense foods versus empty calories.
Determine ways to incorporate more nutrient dense foods into daily food intakes.

Nutrient Density
foods that are packed with nutrients to fuel the body and contain minimal calories.
Term 2
Term 3
Term 4
Term 5
Empty Calories
Energy dense foods that contain more calories than nutrients and are considered poor food choices.
Term 6
Activity Time
Sample of what You Are Doing
Nutrient density vs empty Calories Sort Activity
Nutrient DensE Skinny quesadillas Lab
2 Categories of Nutrients
1. Macronutrients
nutrients needed in large
amounts to sustain life
A. Carbohydrates
B. Fats
C. Protein
2. Micronutrients
Nutrients needed in small amounts that are critical for normal body processes
A. Vitamins
B. Minerals
Macro vs Micro
cut & paste Activity
Carbohydrates
The nutrient that provides the body's main source of fuel by supplying energy to every cell in the body and comes primarily from plants providing glucose to the body.
Term 7
2 Main Types of Carbs
Simple Carbohydrates
Complex Carbohydrates
Sugar molecules that remain separate and are made up of natural and refined sugars that prvide the body with a quick burst of energy and are easilt broke down in the digestive system.
sugar molecules that form together to join long chains called starches and fiber that take longer to digest so they are slowly broken down in the digestive system
Food Sources:
fruits
vegetables
milk & milk products
candies
sugary drinks
Food Sources:
Rice
pasta
Beans
Oatmeal
Quinoa
Barley
Bread
Simple vs Complex Carbs
Plants make carbohydrates from sunlight (photosynthesis) as a way to store the sun's energy for it's own use.
When we eat the plant, we eat up the plants stored energy!
Complete Carb sort/ Venn Diagram Worksheet
Carbohydrate article & handout
Is Sugar Killing Us?
The sugary truth
Carb Sort Activity
Sugary Beverage Investigation
Natural Sugars
A kind of sugar contained in fruits, vegetables, and plants that occur primarily in the forms of fructose, glucose, and sucrose. They are not man made or manipulated which hences the natural part
term 8
Refined Sugars
Sugars that are highly processed and often come from the breakdown of sugar cane or man made sugar sweetners
Term 9
Sugars effects on the brain
Starch
A white, granular, chemical compound found in plants that is broken down by the body into simple sugars to be absorbed.
1. They leave a full or satiated feeling for a longer period of time
term 10
Starches
2. Starches provide the majority of calories we eat and provide the main energy source by most diets.
Starches are Found In
grains (rice, corn, wheat,millet, oats)
roots & tubers (potatoes & yams)
legumes (peas and beans)
Fiber
The carbohydrate portion of a plant the body cannot digest and absorb but serves an important role as the cleansing unit of the digestive tract.
Term 11
2 Types of Fiber
Soluble Fiber
Insoluble Fiber
Fiber that absorbs water
(Think of the water & sponge anology)
Fiber that does not absorb in water
(think of the water slide analogy)
How to eat a fiber rich diet
Carbohydrate Quiz
FATS
Diabetes
Diabetes
a metabolic disease in which the body's inability to produce any or enough insulin which causes elevated levels of glucose in the body.
term 12
What did dogs teach us about Diabetes
Hyperglycemia
2 Types of Diabetes
Type 1
Type 2
Insulin dependent Diabetes
Adult Onset Diabetes
An Auto-immune disorder that is usually diagnosed in the early years and cannot be prevented. The disoder attACKs the part of the pancreas that makes insulin.
Caused by the body not being able to respond to insulin or produce enough insulin and can be controlled or prevented by improved nutrtion, weight loss, and increased exercise.
Insulin shots are needed Daily
Insulin shots may be need if sugar levels are off
Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes:
family history
being overweight
lack of exercise
race/ethnicity
High blood glucose (blood sugar) levels when the body has too little insulin or cannot use the insulin properly.
term 13
Hypoglycemia
Low blood glucose (blood sugar) levels when the body has too little insulin or cannot use the insulin properly.
Handout on Hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia
Sugar:Hiding In Plain Sight
What is Fat?
THE abc"S OF VITAMINS
oMEGA 3'S, fISH, & fISH oILS
iRON rICH fOODS

Saturated Fats
Fats that are solid at room temperature and come primarily from animal sources. They have a negative impact on an individuals overall health if not ate in moderation.
Term 15
Term 14
Unsaturated Fats
Fats that remain liquid at room temperature and come primarily from plants.
Term 16
Food Examples
Meats
fish
Eggs
Dairy Products
Chocolate
Food Examples
olive oil, peanut oil, vegetable oil, nuts, seds, beans, legumes
Trans Fat
A man-made fat that is created by adding hydrogen to vegetable oil to increase the shelf life of several foods and add flavor and texture.
Term 17
Good fat vs bad Fat
Food Sources
margarine, shortening, commercial baked goods like biscuits, cakes, and chips, fast and sit down deep fried resturaunt foods
Trans Fats
higher risk for heart disease than with saturated fats
raises bad cholesterol levels
depletes good cholesterol levels
doubles a woman's risk of heart disease
operates similar to bacon grease in a kitchen sink in the arteries
Fats Review Worksheet and Cut out graphic Organizer
Cholesterol
Cholesterol
A white crystalline substance found in animal tissues and various foods which is thought to cause artery and heart disease
Term 18
2 Main Types of Blood Cholesterol
1)
LDL: Low Density Lipoprotein: known as "bad" cholesterol because it builds up in the walls of the arteries as plaque. This plaque causes a reduce in blood flow and increases the chance for heart disease.
2)
HDL: High Density Lipoprotein: Known as good cholesterol and helps lower the bad cholesterol levels by removing LDL from the arteries and disposing of it in the liver.
wht is Cholesterol
Lower Cholesterol in your diet
High Protein Vegetarian Foods

Tips Concerning Cholesterol in the Body
1) Most of the fat in your diet should come from unsaturated fatty acids like oils, seeds, nuts, and fatty fish that provide omega 3 fatty acids
2) small amounts of your fat intake should come from saturated fatty acids (this should be less than 10% of calories in the diet)
3) transfats and food containing transfat should be avoided or consumed as little as possible. Transfat is the only fat that can be removed from the diet 100% and not hve an impact on your overall health.
Athersclerosis
the hardening or narrowing of the arteries due to plaque build-up
This progressive, silent, yet slow-building killer attacks blocks arteries reducing blood flow capabilities!
Protein
Dif types of proteins
Protein
Builds, repairs, and maintains cells and tissues in the body
term 19
2 Types of Protein
Incomplete Protein
Complete Protein
Proteins that contain all nine essential amino acids and come primarily from animal sources
Proteins that lack one of more of the essential amino acids and come primarily from plant sources.
meats
fish
eggs
cheese
milk products
2 Exceptions:
Soybeans & Quinoa
beans
peas
nuts
whole grains
2 Ways to Make an Incomplete Protein Complete
1. Add an incomplete protein to a complete protein
(such as rice and chicken)
2. Add two incomplete proteins together that have the missing essential amino acids the other is lacking so that all nine become present when ate together.
(Rice & Beans)
Incomplete vs Complete Chain activity
Read Protein Article and Fill out Worksheet

Powerful Proteins Round Robin
Hunt Lab
Vitamins
Vitamins
Organic compounds made by plants and animals that we cannot always produce ourselves
term 20
2 Types of Vitamins
fat Soluble
Water Soluble
Vitamins that cannot dissolve in water or body fluids but can be stored in body
Vitamins A, D, E, & K
Vitamins that are dissolved in water and cannot be stored by the body which requires daily consumption
Note**
Water soluble vitamins are much more fragile than fat soluble vitamins and are easily damaged or lost in food cooking and storage
Vitamin C & B complex
Vitamin A
Essential for normal growth and development of cells
good vision
healthy skin
healthy mucous membranes
bone formation
growth
immunity
reproduction
Best Foods for Vitamin A
animal livers & other organs
milk & milk products
butter
eggs
squash
pumpkins
carrots
sweet Potatoes
yams
mango
peaches
dark gren leafy vegetables
Vitamin D
Works in partnership with Calcium and other minerals to provide bone density and strength
An individual can get all the needed vitamin D needed each day by soaking up the natural sunlight for 30 minutes per day. It is the only nutrient the body can synthisize on its own
Although it can be found naturally in a few foods it is often fortified in products like milk, butter, and margarine.
fat soluble vitamin
Fat Soluble Vitamin
B1 : Thiamine
Works primarily with carbs to produce energy and plays a role in the transmission of nerve impulses and is needed for muscular, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal systems
prolonged deficiency results in
beri-beri
: a disease associated with h problems, muscle weakness, mental disorders and memory loss.
Food Sources:
liver
pork
unrefined whole grains
some fruits
B2: Riboflavin
Required to release energy from carbohydrates, proteins, and fats in body cells while promoted growth, goodvision, and healthy skin
Food Sources:
milk
cheese
yogurt
liver
some grains
some vegetables
B3: Niacin
Helps release energy from the macronutrients and helps maintain healthy skin, digestive tract, and nervous system
Diets low in B3 result in
Pellagra
: a disease called the three D's" because it often results in dermatitis (flaky skin), Dementia (anxiety/ delirium), and Diarrhea.
Food Sources:
chicken
beef
tuna & other fish
mushrooms
bran
green leafy veggies
enriched grains
cereals
peanuts
asparagus
Vitamin C
Very important for the health of tissues and acts like the "cement" to hold cells and tissues together by forming collagen (the structural protein and connective tissues).
Prolonged vitamin C deficiency results in
Scurvy
: A disease characteriszed by loose teeth, leaking of fluids from the tissues, failure to form healthy scar tissues, difficulties of bone rebuilding, and bleeding of internal organs.
Food Sources:
oranges
lemons
limes
tangerines
grapefruits
dark green leafy vegetables
strawberries
kiwi
tomatoes
sweet peppers
broccoli
Vitamin D Deficiency: Healthination
Minerals
Minerals
Form body structures and regulate chemical reactions
term 21
Minerals are taken up from the soil into plants and used by animals and people when they eat the plants
Minerals regulate many body Processes such as :
heart beat
nerve response
nerve reactions
blood clotting
fluid regulation
energy metabolism
Calcium
Essential for bone growth as well as nerve and muscle functions
the most abundant mineral in the body
The bones are the storage bank for most of the calcium in the body
Stored calcium is released into the body when needed to maintain a constant level in the blood
Vitamins Song
best food sources:
milk
cheese
yogurt
fish
white beans
tofu
almonds
sesame seeds
broccoli
spinach
Osteoporosis
A disease in which the bones become fragile and more likely to break due to the natural aging process that breaks bones down faster than new bone can be formed.
term 22
Osteoporosis Facts
Osteoporosis takes away the minerals that make up the internal supporting structures of bone until it becomes so weak and brittle that bending to pick up a newspaper, lifting a vacuum, or even coughing can cause a fracture.
Even though it may not seem like you need to worry about this now, your bones are busy storing calcium they need for later in life.
Risk Factors Associated with Osteoporosis
over 65 years of age
Smoking
being underweight for height
Not getting enough calcium
being physically inactive
poor daily nutrition
WHAT CALCIUM DOES FOR THE bODY
BUILDS STRONG BONES AND TEETH
MOVES OUR FACIAL MUSCLES SO WE CAN SMILE
MOVES OUR MUSCLES SO WE CAN RUN AND PLAY
hELPS STOP BLEEDING
hEALS cUTS AND SCRAPES
cALCIUM IS STORED IN DIFFERENT
PARTS OF OUR bODY
UP TO 90% IN OUR BONES
UP TO 30% IN OUR TEETH
AS MUCH AS 1% IN OUR BLOOD
WHO IS CALCIUM'S BUDDY?
VITAMIN D
Iron
Needed in the blood and muscles as part of the system that carries oxygen throughout the body to be used for energy production of cells.
Why is Iron Needed?
found in every cell of the body
vital for both physical and mental well-being
carries oxygen to the lungs and the rest of the body
aids in energy production
helps maintain a healthy immune system
Anemia
A disease that results from inadequate amounts of iron in the body and blood stream due to low hemoglobin levels.
term 23
Anemia Symptoms
fatigue
lethargy
more frequent infections
reduced resistance to cold
Sodium

Potassium
A mineral responsible for many of your body systems and is referred to as one of the key electrolytes in your body (sodium being the other).


functions in the body
maintain electrolyte balance in the body
manages blood pressure and keep heart healthy
helps muscles contract
aids in waste removal
assists in the release of energy from the macro nutrients
helps with effective cognitive functioning by delivering oxygen to the brain
Potassium rich Foods
or salt
Needed for :
regulating body water content and electrolyte balance
the absorption of certain nutrients and water from gut



Most Americans do
NOT
get Enough Fiber!
Why is Fiber Important?
Helps maintain a healthy digestive system. Digestion works primarily by pushing digested food through the intestines . It promotes healthy bowel movements by adding "bulk" to our stools and preventing constipation.
Helps maintain a healthy body weight by slowing stomach emptying and promoting feelings of fullness
Helps prevent several diseases!
Both types of fiber are needed in the diet but we need more insoluble fiber. Most foods have a mix of the two types of fiber!
35 grams per day is the magic number!
Fiber & Disease Prevention
obesity:
helps us to feel full faster & Less likely to overeat
Type 2 Diabetes:
Less Likely to overeat and maintain a healthy weight
Diverticulitis:
Getting enough fiber keeps us regular which keeps us from getting a build-up of small pockets in the intestine causing inflamation & infection
Fiber & Disease Prevention
Colon Cancer:

Is part of our intestines and high fiber foods can reduce our chances of colon cancer by pushing cancer-causing agents out quicker.
Heart Disease:
Fiber lowers the amount of cholesterol in your blood and decreases your risk.
Can you eat too much fiber?
YES!
When you increase fiber too quickly you get intestinal gas, bloating, and cramping so it is best to slowly increase your intake of fiber by adding 5 grams per day until you meet the recommended amount!
Get more Fiber worksheet
What do these pictures have in common?
How Your Nutritional Status is Decided
Body Composition and Appearance:
Condition of your skin, hair, and nails
Presence of fat and muscle
your weight in relation to your height and body structure
Blood Work
Blood levels indicate if you are well nourished & if you are consuming the right amount of food
Nutrition Risk Factors
access to food
existing chronic conditions
ability to consume and absorb food
Under Your Hood:
The Healthy Weight Maintenance Checklist
# 1 Sleep:
# 2 Energy Level

# 3 Focused Eating
# 4 variety of food
# 5 nutrient density
# 6 fiber
# 7 hydration
# 8 bone health
#9 lean versus fat
#10 aerobic fitness
#11 strength
#12 flexibility
#13 Active Lifestyle
#14 mental health
#15 medical history
or
Body Mass

Index
BMI
A measurement of the relative percentages of fat and muscle mass in the human body

Micro-nutrients and their importance
Macro nutrients explainer
Carbohydrates
Vitamins
Fats
Minerals
Protein
Water
A to Z simple carb organizer
soda can opening
Amazing fiber: Cleaning the pipes
Southwestern Quinoa Burgers Lab
Southwestern Quinoa Burgers Lab Follow-up
Webquest activity
Low-sugar water cooler lab and carb quiz
get more fiber worksheet
Diabetes - Made Simple
Fats
Have received a negative image in the past
Important part of good nutrition
Promote healthy skin and normal cell growth
Carry fat soluble vitamins wherever they are needed in the body
20-35% of an individuals overall calories should come from fat
fills your fat cells to insulate your body t keep you warm.
Take Fats Pre-test for video
The body can make all
the saturated fats needed
by the other things we eat
Have a positive impact on overall health as long as ate in moderation
Increases HDL or good cholesterol levels and decreases LDL or bad levels
The only fat that can be 100% Eliminated from the diet!
Reasons why Trans Fats are used
easy to use
inexpensive to produce
last a long time
give foods a desirable taste and texture
Ways to Regulate Trans fat
Eat fresh foods like fruit, vegetables, whole grains, low-fat dairy products, poultry, fish, and nuts
limit sugary foods and beverages
Use naturally occurring unsaturated oils
Trans fat detection lab
Kahoot Fats review game
Color Coding Fats Assignment
Trans Fat Warning!
trans fat is required on food labels
but only if there is more than .5 grams per serving
which makes trans fat labeling tricky because many companies will reduce the serving size so they can claim a food as trans fat free but if a person eats more than one serving they are still consuming trans fat.


Omega 3 Fatty Acids
An essential polyunsaturated fat

that is an integral part of cell membranes throughout the body and affect the cell receptors in these membranes.
How do Omega's Help?
Reduce heart disease
lower blood presure
Lower heart rate
improve blood vessel function
Lower Cholesterol numbers

fight off depression
assist in proper baby development
reduce Asthma related inflammation
slows Alzheimer's diease/Dementia progression
Food Sources of OMega 3's
Fish-
mackerel, wild salmon, herring, tuna
nuts-
especially walnuts
seeds-
chia and flaxseed
leafy vegetables
collards, spinach, kale, brussel sprouts

Common Characteristics of Trans Fatty Foods
Semi-solid or soft solid fat at room temperature
typically soft and pliable with a creamy mouth feel and smooth consistency
crispy taste/texture
longer shelf life
oil is less prone to oxidize
low melting pt/ high smoking point
contains the words partially or fully hydrated on the ingredients part of the label.
term 24
Electrolytes
Any substance that contains free ions that behaves as an electrically conductive medium.
Signs of Electrolyte Imbalance
irregular heartbeat
weakness
twitching
muscle spasms
migraines
fatigue
convulsions
numbness
seizures
Deals with the electrolyte balance working with sodium and water!
Sodium is the same thing as salt!
Full transcript