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zhen wang luo

on 19 December 2013

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Transcript of OLD DELUDER SATAN LAW 1647

American Historical Events Timeline
The Old Deluder Satan Law was one of the most famous law passed in American education history. It stated Satan, in the guise of Catholic Church, was trying to prevent Christians from reading the Bible by keeping them ignorance and illiterate. To counter that the law required town with more than fifty families to hire teacher to teach the town’s children to read. The town with more than hundred families were to have a Latin grammar school. The law was important to American education because it was the first to formally establish an education system which proposed the size of the class and school. It was earliest example of American usage of legal system to push through public education.

In conclusion, American education is important part of American culture. The education system have greatly evolved over time. It ran between public and private funding. The religion and technology casted great influences on schools’ curriculum. The legal system also placed important role in schools’ set up and placement. The system was constantly changed thanks to many great educators and reformers. We may all learn from their lessons to continue to refine today’s American education system so we may provide the best quality education to all American students.Conclusion
American education historical events timeline
CLASSICAL CURRICULUM from Ancient Greek and Rome
The classical curriculum used by the colonists can be traced back to mid 15th century when the intellectual movement called the Renaissance revisited ancient language as Greek and Latin grammar in Europe. From there after, European education was mainly considered of teaching Greek and Latin grammar to understand and study the bible and other religious texts. The curriculum was brought to America by early settlers whom used it to teach their children the same interpretation of the bible which the settlers loyal to. The classical curriculum was important to American education because that was where American education began.

The 1785 Land Ordinance specified the money made from selling the town’s center parcel to be used to construct the town’s public school. It was example of early Federal involvement in funding school construction. Given the circumstance that Federal government could not raise tax to fund public education, it was a creative way for the government to support public education. It was important to American education because it indicate the Federal government’s role and the early source of school funding in public education.

Market Revolution 1815-1846
During Market Revolution, the small and isolated American country communities were connected by vast improvement of transportation and machineries. The improve quality of machines, roads and railways improve the system’s efficiency. Farmers changed from farming for what the family eat to cultivate cash corps that they may sell in the cities or towns. With the extra money they got, famers could purchase goods that manufactory in the cities. The abundant food supplies supported the towns and cities’ expansion. With the growing economy, the towns and cities had the necessary funding to fun public school projects. Market Revolution was important in American education because it caused common school expansion. It also demonstrated how improve technology may push education forward.
Thomas H. Gallaudet first co-founded the institute in Connecticut in1817 to help educate deaf and dumb children. It was one of the first institution to serve children with learning disabilities. The institution still exists today as American School for the Deaf. Since the institution opened, many similar institutions were established and served tens of thousand of disability children. It was consider the beginning of Special Education

The first High School was opened in Boston in 1821. It was opened base on the idea that free higher education should be available to those whom wanted to further their education after Common School. It was meant to attract other rich cities to follow their free schooling model. By 1850, many of Northern American cities had at least one High School. It stressed a more moderate curriculum than the traditional Greek and Latin education. High School has became part of today’s five three four system which commonly used as five years in grade school, three years middle school and four years high school.

The American academies flourished after 1827 which Massachusetts formally changed its law to replace Latin Grammar Schools with schools that taught students new skills such as bookkeeping, geometry, surveying and algebra. Many of the academies were already doing so. Therefore, they naturally pick up the slot that created by the law. Many new academies incorporated after the law was signed. American Academies were important in American education because most of them were coeducation which teach both male and female students. Some girls academies provided college level education to female students. As more girls took on education on math and science, it prepared more female to become teachers later on. Many of the academies became normal schools which the main purpose was to educate future female teachers.

HORACE MANN 1837-1848
Horace Mann was the first Secretary of Massachusetts Broad of Education from 1837-1848. He was an American education reformer who championed for American to fund public education through taxation. He argued to the rich that public schools would produce well behave, punctual and intelligent workers for the factories. He argued to the poor that invest in public education would save the society money by having less prisoners. During his term, many other reformers pushed for funding for public school. He was term was important to American education because even not every American brought his ideas but it represented the country’s shift to tax supported public education system.

The graded system was invented by John D. Philbrick, the principal of Quency Grammar School of Boston in 1847. His system was consisting two parts. One was to break down learning materials into smaller sections so the students may follow from the easier level to the higher level gradually. Second, he separated the teachers according to the devision of labor. In other words, instead of a single teacher taught all the subjects to every student, each teacher would teach a specific age group certain subjects. Students would then move on to the next teacher to learn the next level. The method was proven effective and spread across the country quickly. The Graded System Changed American schools from single teacher and one room school house to multiple teachers collaborating teaching system which students were group by their age and subjects. The system is still in use today.

The purpose of common schools was that everyone would go to them. In that period, education reformers were not happy with the way schools were funded by tuition. They considered the school terms were short and the attendance were unreliable. Reformers were also dislike that the way teachers were trained, the use of corporal punishment in schools and the out dated school houses and text books. Reformers were looking to build new school houses according to building codes, to staff schools with qualify female teachers, to have longer school terms and use the latest teaching practices and textbooks. It was important to American education because it was the beginning of public schools.

After the Civil War, more public money was poured into public school system. As one of the results, the standards for teacher preparation was higher than the academies. Also, many states tired their financial aid with mandated student achievement test. Further more, many colleges dropped the preparatory programs which were designed to help students to transit from academies to colleges. Many of the academy students were not doing well on the achievement test which led to low enrollments. The decline of American Academies was a great example of how an education model and curriculum could blossom under the right condition then needed to be changed, modified or replaced over time.

Compulsory School Laws were passed by State Legislatures to mandate school age students must attend school. These laws did not significantly increase school attendances. However, they worked the US constitution’s police power to define that States had unlimited power to regulate children’s education. It was important to American education because it normalized the American School age to 16 as the new standard by 1930, defined the States’ legal role in regulating education.
Plessy V. Ferguson was a supreme court case that declared segregation was constitutional as long as the resources were shared equally between the two races. Under such definition, all American children should have equal access to same quality of facilities, faculties, and other education resources. In reality, children in black communities had substantially less in both quantity and quality. While many of the white students were consolidated into new, bigger and mordent schools, many of the black students were still study in dilapidated one-room schools with one or two teachers in 1920s-1930s. The differences between what guaranteed by the law to the realities formed the base for civil rights movement and school desegregation.
There were about half million of Chinese immigrants in the United States at the time. The Chinese students were force into segregated black schools. The Chinese American sued Mississippi. The case was struck down by the supreme court. The Chinese yellow skin color was treated as black. The case showed how the American legal system was working under the influence of globe context which discriminated Asian America at the time and treated them like other ethnic minorities.
Brown V. Broad of Education was another supreme court case regarding education. It declared the segregation between black and white to be unconstitutional. It over turned the Plessy V. Ferguson decision that segregation was legal. More importantly, the decision reversed the century old custom that white is more superior than black of other color people which deserve better treatment including education. It marked the beginning of the end of segregation in schools and the rule cover any ethnic groups as well as blacks and whites.

Bilingual Education Act was passed in 1968 to encourage state governments to create programs to assist no English native students. The law as many of the previous education related laws was not a mandate. The law encouraged state governments to act in exchange for federal funding. It was important in American education because it focused its attention on mostly new immigrant children with language barrier.
Lau V. Nichols was another supreme court case related to bilingual education. The ruling stated that if helps were not provided to children with linguistic needs then their rights under equal protection were been violated. In other words, states must provide additional programs that were designed to help students with linguistic needs to catch up with their peers. This law was important because it turn Bilingual Education Act into a federal mandate. It furthered its protection toward the ethnic and linguistic minorities.

Wyatt V. Stickney was one of the federal case related to special education. A group of Alabama’s Bryce Hospital employees sued the hospital after they been laid off due to budget cut. The federal judge heard the case on constitutional ground and found that people with disabilities had constitutional for adequate care. The Case had no direct connection with education, however, the legal ground that been set up by this case was being borrowed and applied in other cases educational case which changed American education’s direction. It demonstrated how American legal system work with American education in one way.

In 1972, Washington DC’s Broad of Education had to turn away some students with disabilities, even they wanted to educate them, because lack of funding. All parties, from both side of the case, hoped by turning to court, its decision would force Congress to allocate funding for special education. The federal judge did strongly agree that children with disabilities have constitutional right for suitable public education. This case was built on the previous case’s legal ground but use the interpretation of the law to steer public education.

PL 94-142 1975
The PL 94-142 was also called the Education of All Handicapped Children Act. The law set to create education programs that fit the disable children’s needs, protect the disable children and their parents’ rights, provide some federal funding for the programs and assess the programs effectiveness. It was different from any of the previous laws because it created a federal mandate for special education even the Federal government does not have constitutional right to regulate education. It showed the American’s opinion on publication shifted from local control toward federal control.

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