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The Great White Shark

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Ted Fout

on 19 July 2011

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Transcript of The Great White Shark

Phylum Chordata

Class Chondrichthyes

Order Lamniformes

Genus Carcharodon

Species C. carcharias Habitat The great white shark is found mostly in temperate seas throughout the world's oceans. It makes infrequent visits to cold waters and has been recorded off Alaska and Canada.

Great whites can be found along the coastlines of South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, California to Alaska, the east coast of USA and the Gulf coast, Hawaii, most of South America, the Mediterranean Sea, West Africa to Scandinavia, Japan and the eastern coastline of China and southern Russia. Distinguishing Features They have a torpedo shaped body.
Their mouth is ventrally located.
They have gray upper bodies and white lower bodies.
They grow an average of 15 feet in length and weigh up to 5,000 pounds. Reproductive System These sharks are ovoviviparous, they give birth to 2-14 fully formed pups which are up to 1.5m (5ft) long.

Fertilization of the eggs occurs in the female, and later the eggs actually hatch within the female. The young are nourished by eating unfertilized eggs and smaller siblings in the womb. There is no placenta with which they can get nourishment from their mother; they must fend for themselves.

The female gives birth to live young, unlike many other sharks who lay eggs. The newborn gets no help from its mother. As soon as it’s born it swims away to begin living its life. Common Name Great white shark,
White shark or White
pointers. Digestive and Excretory System The esophagus is short and wide, barely discernible from the stomach. A U-shaped stomach leads to a spiral valve in many species.

A spiral valve is the lower portion of the digestive tract. It is internally twisted or coiled to increase the surface area, which increases nutrient absorption.

After the spiral valve, the digestive tract leads to the rectum and to the cloaca. The cloaca is a common opening for the urinary, digestive, and reproductive systems. Circulatory and Respiratory system A shark's heart is a two-chambered S-shaped tube, small in proportion to body size. Blood flows from the heart to the gills and then to body tissues.

Fast-swimming sharks, such as great whites and makos, have a body temperature that can be quite a bit higher than the surrounding water (up to 8°C or 14.4°F higher).

As red muscle functions, it generates heat. Muscle-generated heat warms the blood circulating through the red muscle, which then travels back to the heart through veins. Thus, blood returning to the heart from the muscle is warmer than blood traveling from the heart to the muscle. Nervious system and senses Sharks have only an inner ear, which consists of three chambers and an ear stone called an otolith. A shark's inner ear detects sound, acceleration, and gravity.

Sound is often the first sense a shark relies on to detect prey.

Sharks are attracted to low-frequency pulsed sounds, similar to those wounded or ill prey would emit.

The lateral line system is a series of fluid-filled canals just below the skin of the head and along the sides of the body. The canal is open to the surrounding water through tiny pores.

The lateral line canals contain a number of sensory cells called neuromasts. Tiny hair-like structures on the neuromasts project out into the canal. Water movement created by turbulence, currents, or vibrations displaces these hair-like projections and stimulates the neuromasts. This stimulation triggers a nerve impulse to the brain. Natural enemies? The great white shark is considered an apex preditor
and does not have any natural enemies. Fun fact #2 A great white will sneak up on its pray by swimming quickly at it from underneath. Fun fact #1 Their mouths are lined with up to 300 serrated, triangular teeth arranged in several rows. Fin GILL & RESPIRATION
Water enters the gill chambers through the mouth and exits through the gill slits.

Blood in the gill filaments absorbs oxygen from the incoming water. The ampullae of Lorenzini form a complex and extensive sensory system around a shark's head.

External pores cover the surface of a shark's head. Each pore leads to a jelly-filled canal that leads to a membranous sac called an ampulla. In the wall of the ampulla are sensory cells innervated by several nerve fibers.

The ampullae detect weak electrical fields at short ranges. All living organisms produce electrical fields.

Ampullae of Lorenzini are effective only within inches, as they sense bioelectric fields in the final stages of prey capture. Sharks have a basic vertebrate eye, but it is laterally compressed. The lens is large and spherical and it is apparent that they are well-suited for seeing in dim light. Their eyes are particularly sensitive to moving objects.

Paired external nostrils with an incurrent and an excurrent opening lead to ventral olfactory organs (organs which function in smelling).

Sharks have an acute sense of smell. They are well-known for their ability to detect minute quantities of substances such as blood in the water. Sharks are hunted for their fins and can be caught in nets. Webliography http://animals.nationalgeographic.com/animals/fish/great-white-shark/
http://www.seaworld.org/animal-info/info-books/sharks-&-rays/anatomy.htm Susceptibility
to human activities. Classification
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