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Research Methods Lecture II

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Jean-Michel Sotiron

on 4 September 2015

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Transcript of Research Methods Lecture II

Research Methods - Class 2
SIX major differences between Quantitative and Qualitative Research
Plato’s Allegory of the Cave
1. Recent IMMIGRANTS to Canada tend to be less healthy and more of a burden on our health care system than Canadians born here. LARGELY TRUE/LARGELY FALSE?
QUIZ
What is the POINT of the QUIZ?
...plausibility and extracting themes or generalizations from evidence that presents a coherent, consistent picture.
INDUCTIVE
...hypothesis tests based on probability
DEDUCTIVE
Quantitative
Qualitative
Data are in the form of words, images or symbols extracted from documents, observations, transcripts…
Data are in the form of numbers and graphs from precise measurement.
Quantitative
Qualitative
...usually created in an ad hoc way and are often situation-specific
...systematically created before data collection and are standardized.
Quantitative
Qualitative
Capture and discover meaning once the researcher becomes immersed in the data.
Test hypothesis that the researcher begins with.
Quantitative
Qualitative
Procedures are particular and replication is rare.
Procedures are standard and replication is assumed.
Quantitative
Qualitative
...in the form of concepts, themes, classification schemes, generalizations …
...in the form of distinct variables.
Quantitative
Qualitative
THEORY
Select a
Topic
Focus
Question

Design
Study
Collect
Data
Analyze
Data
Interpret
Data
Inform
Others
Steps in the Research Process (p. 11)
Deductive vs. Inductive
Which is better?
Theory
> Hypothesis > Observation > Confirmation
Observation > Pattern > Tentative Hypothesis >
Theory
Tips for Public Speaking
-Carnegie Hall
-Say it out loud
-Stop. Breathe. Slow down.
2. In investigating populations, DEMOGRAPHERS, repeatedly find that one of the strongest correlates of birth rates is economic prosperity. When families can afford to have more children, they do. LARGELY TRUE/LARGELY FALSE?
3. HOMICIDE rates within countries throughout the world fall sharply following their participation in war. War brings unity to a population. Killing the enemy seems to exhaust the potential for homicide. LARGELY TRUE/LARGELY FALSE?
6. Most AL-QUAEDA terrorists are poor, have low education levels and were brought up very religious. LARGELY TRUE/LARGELY FALSE?
4. Montreal is so cold because it is so far NORTH. Compare its weather to Paris or London where it rarely snows.
LARGELY TRUE/LARGELY FALSE
5. When it comes to average household WEALTH, Judaism is the richest religion in the United States of America.
LARGELY TRUE/LARGELY FALSE?
ANSWERS TO THE QUIZ
1. Immigrants
2. Demographers
3. Homicide
4. North
5. Wealth
6. Al-Quaeda
Importance of empirical proof.
Always be skeptical.
Do not simply trust your common sense.
The Discipline Game
What is it?
Lynda Gelston's idea.
Competition for funding. Learn about different social sciences.
The Discipline Game
Roles
Researchers:
Theme:
Canadian Elections
Psychology
Business
History
Sociology
Economics
Philosophy / Religious Studies
Political Science
Geography
Anthropology
Judges (3)
Reporters
General Public
More info in distributed documents
(5 max. per discipline)
Quantitative Methods
vs
Qualitative Methods
Social Science Knowledge
Different ways of knowing
Quantitative
Qualitative
New name: The Funding Game
Format:
ROUND 1: Each group gets 5 minutes. + Judges may ask clarification questions.
ROUND 2: If desired, each group gets two minutes to argue for their project after having heard of the other groups' projects.
Quantitative & Qualitative Research:
A comparison
Social Science Knowledge
Ex: Chimpanzees
Ex: Professional Athletes & Upbringing
2. UNITS OF ANALYSIS
1. DIRECTION
3. MEASURES
4. DATA
5. PROCEDURES
6. CONCLUSIONS
Ex: Yakuza
Ex: Handedness
Ex: Deaf student grades
ex: mentoring with youth in foster care
2011: 47 885 foster children in Canada
0.5% of all children <14 y.o.
62% of foster children < 14 y.o.
17 410 different foster homes w/ <14 y.o.
QUANTITATIVE: Mentoring youth in foster care
57% of these households with married couple
12% common-law
14% lone parent
17% other
QUALITATIVE
Mentoring youth in foster care
Relationship Initiation Barriers
-Fear of negative outcomes
-Pressure to bond quickly
-Too much directive advice
-Limited cultural and/or demographic background understanding
(Emotional disapointment
+ unmet expectations)
Steps in the research process
Full transcript