Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM

Copy

Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.

DeleteCancel

AMERICAN INTERVENTION AND PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE

No description
by

Rachel Tinio

on 16 March 2015

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of AMERICAN INTERVENTION AND PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE

Group 1 | 4E PHARMACY
AMERICAN COLONIZATION

Aguinaldo
and his group went into
voluntary exile
in Hong Kong

• Because of the huge investments of Americans to the sugar industry, the
US government was dragged into war with Spain

• This was
closely monitored
by the
Filipino revolutionaries
in exile
American Intervention and
Philippine Independence

Cuba
revolted against its colonial master Spain


Governor-General Valeriano Weyler
established camps for the rebel and their sympathizers

• Many American businessmen had huge investments in the sugar industry


President McKinley
sent US battleship Maine to Cuba for evacuating American citizens

• A letter from a Spanish minister to the United States,
Enrique Dupuy de Lome
had been stolen and was published in
New York Journal

The Spanish-American War of 1989
• This aroused the
ire of the Americans
considering that the person insulted was the symbol of the American nation

• American battleship
Maine
docked at
Havana harbor
was blown up by the Spaniards

• According to
Randolf Hearst,

father of yellow journalism,
the battleship was actually blown up and sank by the American spies


McKinley
recommended direct intervention in Cuba and the US congress accepted and voted for war with Spain

• Spain declared war on
April 24 1898
and the
Spanish-American war began on April 25,1898

The Spanish-American War of 1989

Commodore George Dewey
proceeded immediately to the Philippines and it was led by the flagship
Olympia

• They entered
Manila Bay
early morning

• They engaged Spanish fleet headed by
Admiral Patricio Montojo
but lasted only for few hours

• This battle was one of the
most significant
battles in the history of the Americans because it
established the US as a world power

• For the Filipinos,
Dewey’s victory
signaled the
end
of more than 300 years of Spanish colonial rule in the country


Marked the beginning of the American colonial rule
in the Philippines

Battle of Manila Bay
Guevarra, How, Salazar, Samar, San Juan, Santos, Sore, Tagra, Tan, C., Tan, D., Tokoyo, Tinio, Vargas, Venzon, Yu
Dewey
blockaded Manila while awaiting reinforcements from the US.

Basilio Agustin
Governor-general of the country
Successor of
Primo de Rivera
Appealed to the Filipino people to assist Spain in her struggle for survival from American regression
Issued two decrees:
Filipino Militia
and
Consultative Assembly
PURPOSE: To win over the
ilustrados
BACKFIRED: All those appointed to militia sided with Aguinaldo
CONSULTATIVE ASSEMBLY
Headed by
Pedro Paterno
Accomplished nothing
Attempts at Gaining Filipino Support
Filipino exiles in Hong Kong closely monitored the developments in the Philippines and the conflict between Spain and the United States

A problem cropped up regarding the disposal of the P400,000 from Governor-General Primo de Rivera under the terms of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato
Filipino-American Collaboration
Isabelo Artacho
Filipino-American Collaboration
E. Spencer Pratt

“The Americans would not colonize the Philippines”
Filipino-American Collaboration
Aguinaldo consented to return to the Philippines with Commodore Dewey to lead revolution against Spain and fight alongside the Americans
Filipino-American Collaboration
Rounseville Wildman

American consul in Hong Kong
Told Aguinaldo Dewey had left instructions for his return to the Philippines
Suggested that Aguinaldo should establish a dictatorial government
Filipino-American Collaboration
Filipino-American Collaboration
Filipino-American Collaboration
Aguinaldo's Return to the Philippines
The Aguinaldo Dictatorship
The Filipino Siege of Manila
Wanted the money to be apportioned among themselves
Aguinaldo
rejected the proposal
Sued Aguinaldo in the Hong Kong Supreme Court
Aguinaldo, Gregorio del Pilar, and Leyba
Secretly went to Singapore (arrival: April 23, 1898) to escape inconvenience of having to go to court

Howard Bay
Informed Aguinaldo that
E. Spencer Pratt
(American consul) wanted to talk to him
Wildman and Pratt

Assured that the American government sympathized with the Filipinos’ aspiration for independence

DID NOT MAKE
ANY
FORMAL COMMITMENT
Hong Kong Junta

Met on May 4 to deliberate on course of action.
Present at this meeting were:
Unanimously decided that Aguinaldo should return to the Philippines to lead struggle against the Spaniards
Aguinaldo gave Wildman P117, 000
To be used in purchasing guns and ammunition
P50, 000 – first shipment; arrived promptly
Second delivery never happened

• Felipe Agoncillo – temporary president
• Doroteo Lopez – temporary secretary
• Teodoro Sandico
• Anastacio Francisco
• Mariano Llanera
• Miguel Malvar
• Andres Garchitorena
• Severo Buenaventura
• Maximo Kabigting
• Faustino Lichauco
• Antonio Montenegro
• Galiciano Apacible
Proclamation of Philippine Independence
From Dictatorial to Revolutionary Government
The Treaty of Paris of 1898
End of Filipino-American Collaboration and Spanish Rule
Surrender: Negotiations and the Mock of Battle of Manila
AMERICAN INTERVENTION AND PHILIPPINE INDEPENDENCE
PRELUDE TO THE AMERICAN REGIME
The Malolos Congress
The Drafting of the Malolos Constitution
The First Philippine Republic
The Malolos Republic at Work
Newspaper and the Revolution
Diplomatic Activities to the First Philippine Republic
The Filipino-American War
The Roots of Conflict
The Outbreak of the War
The Filipino-American War Escalates
The War in Visayas
On to Central and Southern Luzon
Disunity Among Filipinos
On to Mindanao and Sulu
The Capture of Aguinaldo
Brutalities During War
The Balangiga Massacre
The Resistance Continues
The End of the Filipino-American War
Two batallions of American soliders landed in
Jolo
to bring Muslim Filipinos into the fold of American rule and used
diplomacy
in the process

American authorities designated
Gen. John C. Bates
to negotiate a treaty, known as the
Bates Treaty,
with S
ultan Jamalul Kiram II
to ensure peaceful coexistence between the Muslims and Americans

Muslim resistance was neutralized,
thereby allowing the Americans to concentrate their efforts on pacifying Christian Filipinos in the archipelago

Number one
priority of Americans during the War of Philippine Independence

Aguinaldo was able to escape captivity and was able to sue for some more time because of the heroic sacrifice of
General Gregorio del Pilar

Aguinaldo was captured by means of a trick planned by
Brigadier Generel Fredrick Funston

The Capture of Aguinaldo
April 1, 1901
– Aguinaldo swore allegiance to the United States

April 19, 1901
– Aguinaldo issued a proclamation on the Filipino people to lay down their arms and accept Americal rule

Aguinaldo’s capture signaled the
death of the First Philippine Republic

Water Cure
Hanged by the thumbs
Dragged by galloping horses
Fires were lit beneath others while they were hanging
Tying to a tree and then shooting the suspect through the legs
Brigadier General Jacob H. Smith
and
Gen. Franklin Bell
ordered the mass murders in answer to the mass resistance
Filipino guerillas chopped off the noses and ears of captures Americans in violation of Aguinaldo’s orders
The Americans decided to invade
Visayan provinces


General Otis
directed
Gen. Miller
to invade and capture Iloilo Province

The Filipinos led by
Gen. Martin Delgado
did not surrender

The Filipinos
burned Iloilo
so the Americans would not be able to make it their base of operations.
The War in Visayas
Cebu surrendered and the
American flag
was hoisted in
Negros

The Negresans offered their services voluntarily for the
maintenance of peace

The Negresans were permitted to draft their own constitutions which then they submitted to
President McKinley

This constitution was then called the
Constitution of Negros
which was not even approved by the US President but it still served as a
basis for the administration
of the island’s civil affairs
General Douglas Mac Arthur
ordered the advance of America troops towards the Filipinos after the refusal of
Gen. Otis
to end hostilities following the incident at
San Juan Bridge

Gen. Douglas Mac Arthur occupied key points in the Filipino regiment like
Makati, Santa Ana

Gen. MacArthur then, targeted
Caloocan
where
Gen. Antonio Luna
were based

Caloocan soon fell before the might of the American army. Gen. Luna didn’t give up and mounted another attack in Manila and in
Azcarraga
but suffered heavy losses. He then, retreated to
Polo, Bulacan

American cruelty was shown.
Mabini’s proposed constitution, which he called
Constitutional Programme of the Philippine Republic
was rejected

Two constitutional plans considered:
Paterno Plan

(based on Spanish Constitution)
and
Calderon Plan

(based on the Constitutions of France, Belgium, Mexico, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, and Brazil)

Most controversial provision in the Calderon draft was the
Union of Church and State

Aguinaldo
refused
to sign the approved constitution due to Mabini’s objections
Also known as Malolos Republic

Inaugurated in Malolos, Aguinaldo as its firs president

Consisted of three branches:
executive, judicial, and legislative
EXECUTIVE

Power was vested in the President elected by legislature

Cabinet (Council of the Government) assists the President

LEGISLATIVE

• Power was exercised by the unicameral Assembly of Representatives

• Elected by people

JUDICIAL

• Power was vested in the Supreme Court of Justice

• Chief justice selected by the Assembly of Representatives

March 30 1899
- Aguinaldo evacuated Malolos and moved his headquarters to
San Isidro, Nueva Ecija

April 23
– Gen. Gregorio Del Pilar defeated American calvary in a stiff battle in
Quinqua, Bulacan

Gen. Licerio Geronimo
overpowered the Americans under
General Lawton in San Mateo, Morong
, in which battle Lawton was killed

Gen. MacArthur moved towards
Kalumpit, Bulacan
where General Luna was waiting for him

On to Central and Southern Luzon
Luna, together with his foot soldiers, calvary, and artily left Kalumpit to punish
General Tomas Mascardo

Luna and his soldiers
lost the fight

November 12, 1899
- the army was dissolved by Aguinaldo

Many of them, including Mabini, who was captured in
December 1899
, were deported to
Guam
in
January, 1901

Power struggle between
Apolinario Mabini
and
Pedro Paterno
and
Felipe Buencamino

Some military officers refused to recognize Gen. Antonio Luna’s authority

June 5, 1899
– Luna and his aide-de-camp were assassinated by the
Kawit Company

As a result, the army was
demoralized
by his unexpected death
The Roots of Conflict
The Filipino-American War
Suspicion
of the Filipinos about the motives of the Americans

Their suspicion grew deeper when the
Americans prevented them from entering Manila
after its fall

Finally, their suspicions were confirmed by the
Treaty of Paris
wherein Spain ceded the Philippines to the United States.

December 21, 1898

Benevolent Assimilation Proclamation
by
President William Mckinley

January 4, 1899
– the announcement was made in the Philippines

General Elwell Otis

Commander
of the American ground forces in the Philippines

January 5, 1899
– Aguinaldo issued a
counter-proclamation
An encounter between Filipinos and Americans on a bridge in
San Juan del Monte
broke out the fighting

Aguinaldo appealed to stop the fighting, but
Otis
responded,
“Fighting, having begun, must go on to the grim end”

Reports made it appear that the Filipinos started the war so it changed the minds of several U.S. senators to
vote for ratification of the Treaty of Paris
which was done on
February 6, 1899
Aguinaldo boarded
McCulloch
at night and arrived in Cavite
two days
later, where he was taken board
Olympia
where he said Dewey had given him assurance of Philippine Independence. However, Dewey denied.
Four major forces:
Spanish colonialism
American imperialism
The Filipino ilustrados
The masses – Katipunan
He advised the people to
respect the property of foreigners
so as not to be held incapable of governing the land.
DALAHIKAN
(Cavite shipyard)

occupied by Filipinos from the Spanish army
PETREL

American warship where
ammunitions
were obtained
By the end of
May 1989
, a number of provinces were seized from Spanish control.
JUNE 2, 1989

General Artemio Ricarte accepted surrender of Spanish commanding general
JUNE 1898

only the ports of Cavite and Manila have not fallen
Aguinaldo
was treated as though he was
head of state
and the Filipinos fought the Spaniards while the Americans waited for reinforcements, all the while
making the Filipinos believe they meant well

The members of the Spanish navy took refuge at
Intramuros

(“The Walled City”)
as Aguinaldo cut off the city’s food and water supply to force them out

The Spaniards were offered
three times
to surrender with generous terms, which
Governor-General Augustin
rejected, awaiting reinforcements that never came
MARIANO PONCE

drawn a draft of constitutional plan Aguinaldo brought with him from Hong Kong
AMBROSIO RIANZARES BAUTISTA

suggested a dictatorial government
MAY 24, 1898

temporary; issued a degree establishing dicatatorial governance; nullified the orders in Biak-na-Bato Republic

APOLINARIO MABINI

unofficial adviser of Aguinaldo; objected the plan of
Aguinaldo
to declare the independece of Philippines

JUNE 12 1898

proclamation of Philippine Independence in Cavite El Viejo
Highlights of the Independence Proclamation

Unfurling of the Philippine national flag (Marcela Agoncillo, Lorenza Agoncillo, Delfin Herbosa)

Playing the Marcha Filipina Magdalo (by San Francisco de Malabon

Reading the Declaration of Philippine Independence

SULPICIO GUEVARRA

translated the Declaration of Independence into English
SOME CONTENTS OF THE DECREE

People of the country are already
tired
of bearing the yoke of Spaniards

Arbitrary arrests and abuses
of the Civil Guards

Deportation
of the illustrious Filipinos

Start a revolution in
August 1896
to regain the independence and sovereignty

Supreme Judge of the Universe, Power and Humanitarian Nation
, the United States of America

We recognize,
approve
, and
ratify
with all the orders emanating from the same, the dictatorship established by
Don Emilio Aguinaldo
, whom revere as the
Supreme Head
of this Nation
General Fermin Jaudenes
replaced
Governor-General Augustin
under the order of the
Peninsular Government
General Meritt
, who had overall command of the American forces, decided to conduct the “offensive” against Manila from the side of Manila Bay.

General Francis Greene
, who was the commander of the second reinforcement, was instructed to tell Aguinaldo and his troops to cooperate with the Americans by leaving the area free for the foreigners to occupy.

General Anderson,
commander of the first reinforcements, even telegraphed Aguinaldo warning him not to let his troops enter Manila without permission from the American commander or else they would be shot

General Arthur Mc Arthur
led the third American reinforcements, ready for battle

The
surrender of Manila
to the Americans signaled
the end
of the Filipino-American collaboration.
General Riego de Dios
(pic at the left), the successor of
Jaudenes
, transferred the headquarters of the Spanish government to
Iloilo
and took command of the Spanish Army in the South. However,
Martin Delgado
(pic at the right) compelled de Dios to leave Iloilo on
December 24
and resulted de Dios to move to
Zamboanga.
Gen. Miguel Malvar
of Batangas took over the leadership of Aguinaldo.
Barbaric acts
were done by the Americans due to the people’s support to the guerillas. They herded people into small areas within the poblacion of their repesctive towns and were kept prisoners for months.
American troops burned houses, carts, poultry, animals, etc. Parallel the early version of concentration camps in the Vietnam War.

Gen. Vicente Lukban ambushed the American troops in Samar but was also captured there.

Gen. Malvar
surrendered to
Gen. J. Franklin Bell
in Lipa, Batangas on
April 16, 1902

Luciano San Miguel
revived the Katipunan in Zambales on
1886
and sustained the guerilla war against the Americans in
1902

Died in a battle with
Philippine Constabulary
and Philippine scouts in the district of
Pugad-Baboy
in Morong

Faustino Guillermo
took over the leadership of the new Katipunan movement.
Others who took part in the guerilla warfare were
Macario Sakay, Julian Mantalan
and
Cornelio Felizardo
1907 Photo. L to R, seated: Julian Montalan, Francisco Carreon, Macario Sakay and Leon Villafuerte; L to R, standing: Benito Natividad and Lucio de Vega
Philippine Constabulary,
Philippine Scouts and elements of the US Army joined forces to go after the guerillas.
Philippine Constabulary troops, circa 1906
Gen. Simeon Ola launched guerilla raids on US occupied towns until his surrender on September 25, 1903

Last Filipino General to surrender to the Americans

Macario Sakay
continued the fight

Leader of a band of patriotic Filipinos
Americans branded him as a bandit
Established the Tagalog “Republic”
Surrendered on July 14, 1906 and was tried and convicted as bandits along with his men.
Hanged on
September 13, 1907

• Pres. Theodore Roosevelt declared that the Philippine-American War was over on
July 4, 1902
Americans called this as the
Philippine Insurrection

The United States concentrated therefore on establishing the machinery for governing the country as an
American colony.
It took
3 years
for the US to defeat the army of the first Philippine Republic

The war was
in favor of the Americans
because of the tremendous millitary adavantages enjoyed by the United States.

Filipinos, on the other hand, were at a
disadvantageous position

Most of the cannons were
captured from Spaniards

Most Filipino soldiers didn’t have guns but used
spears, lances and bolos
in fighting

Filipino soldier
lacked military training

The Filipinos managed to win
small battlefield encounters
but these only delayed the ultimate victory for the Americans.
United States paid a very high price in winning the war as
more than 4,000
American soldiers’ lives were sacrificed.
One of them was
Major General Henry C. Lawton
Killed in the
Battle of San Mateo
on
Dec. 23, 1899.
Highest ranking US military officer
to be killed in action in the Philippine-American War

The
US government
spent about
$600 million
to quell the
Filipino resistance
to the imposition of American sovereignity in the archipelago.
It was an incident in
1901
in the town of the same name during the Philippine–American War. It initially referred to the killing of about
48 members of the US 9th Infantry
by the townspeople allegedly augmented by guerrillas in the town of
Balangiga
on Samar Island during an attack on
September 28
of that year.
Happened on
September 28, 1901
Gen. Jacob H. Smith
, who ordered the killing of
every male over ten years old
during the retaliatory campaign, was subject to court-martial for
"conduct to the prejudice of good order and military discipline".
Reprimanded but not formally punished,
Smith
was
forced into retirement
from the service because of his conduct.
FILIPINO
AMERICAN
28 killed
22 wounded
36 killed
22 wounded
4 missing
8 died of wounds
Gen. Jacob Smith
and his staff inspect the
ruins of Balangiga
in
October 1901
, a few weeks after the US retaliation by
Capt. Bookmiller
and his troops
Photo of
Company C
, 9th US Infantry Regiment with
Valeriano Abanador
(standing, sixth from right) taken in Balangiga. The provenance of the photograph is uncertain
The
US 9th Infantry Regiment
in the Philippines, 1899
Of the
74 men
in Company C,
36 were killed
in action, including all its commissioned officers;
Captain Thomas W. Connell, First Lieutenant Edward A. Bumpus and Major Richard S. Griswold.


Twenty-two
were wounded in action and four were missing in action.
Eight died later of wounds
received in combat; only four escaped unscathed

The villagers captured about
100 rifles
and
25,000 rounds of ammunition
and suffered
28 dead
and
22 wounded

Result:
Filipino Victory

EDUCATION

One of the concerns of the
new established republic
Aguinaldo ordered the
opening of the schools
that were closed during the revolution
The republic allotted a total budget of
P35,000
to finance the education of the
Malolos Republic
Primary, secondary and tertiary
schools were established
Secondary:
Burgos Institute
Tertiary:
Literary University of the Philippines
TAXES

Filipinos of ages
18
to
60
were asked to pay war taxes
Their taxes were used to
support the operation of the government
The government also solicits donations for rich Filipino and Chinese family as an additional source of fund

SECURITY OF THE REPUBLIC

Armed Forces
were organized on a regional basis. Each province had its own brigade, regiment and battalion

Army was
ill-trained and ill-equipped,
they had no military training and also lacked
adequate knowledge
of military tactics and strategies
To sustain the spirit of Filipino nationalism:
El Heraldo de la Revolucion
Newspaper established by the republic on September 1898

The newspaper contains:
All announcements of the governments
Decrees
Proclamations of the President
Activities of the Revolutionary Congress
La Independencia
The most famous privately-owned newspaper
Edited by Antinio Luna
Maiden issue: September 3, 1898
Despite the proclamation of independence, the
country did not become a member of the family of nations
No country in the world recognized the Philippines despite the diplomatic efforts exerted by Filipino diplomats
Felipe Agoncillo, Mariano Ponce, Faustino Lichuaco, Antonio Roxas, Juan Luna, and Eriberto Zarcal
Felipe Agoncillo
Was given the task of persuading the US government to recognize the
Malolos Republic
The effort of Felipe proved futile as the US decided to make the Philippines as an American territory
With the outbreak of the Filipino-American War, the Malolos Republic Destined to die a natural death.
Proclamation of Philippine Independence
A
peace talk
between Spain and the US, peace commissioners of both country met in Paris, France to draft a treaty on
October 1, 1898.
The American peace commission was composed of
William R. Day, Sen. Cushman K. Avis, William P. Frye, Sen. George Gray, and Hon. Whitelaw Reid
The Spanish peace commission was headed by
Don Eugenio Montero Rios,
the President of the Senate, and
Jules Cambon,
a french diplomat.
The
Final Treaty
was concluded in
Paris
on
December 10, 1898
and provided the following:

1. Spain agreed to
remove all soldiers from Cuba
and recognize American occupation of the area;
2. Spain ceded
Guam and Puerto Rico
to the United States;
3. The United States Compensated Spain for its losses with a payment
$20 million.

Ratification of this treaty was not a foregone conclusion in the US senate. The point of friction was the Philippines, which was deemed by many not to be an area of vital interest to the US. In
February 1899
, the treaty received the necessary two-thirds ratification approval by a single vote. US emerged as a world power.
The Filipinos headed by
Emilio Aguinaldo
resented the
American Annexation of the Philippines.
They established the Malolos Republic because of their desire of freedom. Soon they became involved in a struggle against the Americans.

Aguinaldo called for the elections of delegates to the revolutionary Congress on
June 18, 1898

In
September 15 1898,
the
Malolos Congress
was convened by
Aguinaldo
at
Barasoain Church in Malolos, Bulacan

The election was held the day after, among those elected were
Pedro Paterno
, President;
Benito Legarda,
as vice president;
Gregorio Araneta,
as first secretary;
Pablo Ocampo,
as second secretary.

Ratification of Philippine Independence in
Cavite El Viejo
on
June 12, 1898
Unjust execution of Rizal and others to please friars
GOMBURZA’s
Martyrdom

The
first spark of revolution
broke out in Caloocan to Santa Mesa
Dictator
Don Emilio Aguinaldo
given all the powers necessary to enable him to discharge the duties of Government, including the prerogatives of granting pardon and amnesty,
The Philippine Flag
The White Triangle
- the distinctive emblem of the famous Society of the "Katipunan”

The Three Stars
- the three principal Islands of this Archipelago: Luzon, Mindanao, and Panay (where this revolutionary movement started)

Sun
- gigantic steps made by the sons of the country along the path of Progress and Civilization

The Eight Rays
- the eight provinces-Manila, Cavite, Bulacan, Pampanga, Nueva Ecija, Bataan, Laguna, and Batangas - which declared themselves in a state of war as soon as the first revolt was initiated

Colors of Blue, Red, and White
- commemorating the flag of the United States of North America as gratitude for its protection.
Signed by A
mbrosio Rianzares Bautista
, all those assembled and
Mr. L.M. Johnson
, a Colonel of Artillery of USA

Apolinario Mabini
- modified the declaration of independence at
Malolos, Bulacan
; he disagreed to the proclamation as it placed Philippines under the protection of US.

JUNE 18

Aguinaldo issued a decree to reorganize local governments in areas liberated from Spain.
APOLINARIO MABINI
The
Supreme Paralytic
Became Aguinaldo’s
liberal advisor

DECREE OF JUNE 23
The Dictatorship was changed to a
Revolutionary Government
Biak-na-bato
Republic Orders were revoked.
EMILIO JACINTO

Invited by Mabini to join the government in Malolos.
By the end of June:
Rebels controlled all of Luzon except besieged Manila.

July 15:
Aguinaldo chose his cabinet including:
Baldomero
(his brother) – Secretary of War and Public Works
Ilustrados
(Spanish side)
Apolinario Mabini
– Secretary of Foreign Affairs (previously offered to Cayetano Arellano but he declined)

July 23:
Aguinaldo as Chief General proclamation
He deployed
14,000 Filipino soldiers
outside Manila’s walls

AMERICAN FORCES

June 30:
General Thomas Anderson
July 17:
General Francis V. Greene
July 31:
General Arthur MacArthur
General Wesley E. Merritt
Full transcript