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Argument and Persuasion
Transcript of Argument and Persuasion
Everything Is an Argument
Everything in our modern world sends a message.
Everytime you put a message out in the world you are offering your opinion-or your viewpoint.
Someone else has a different viewpoint, so therefore a different opinion.
Argument=a message with multiple viewpoints or opinions
We want people to read/see/hear our message.
We want people to agree with the opinion in our message.
We do this through PERSUASION.
persuasion=the act of getting someone to agree with your opinion
persuasive elements=tools you use to get someone to agree with you
When writing or speaking the Persuasive Elements are also called rhetorical strategies.
(rhetoric=the art of persuasive speaking or writing)
Rhetorical Strategies were first explained by Greek philosopher Aristotle.
Ethos=truth and credibility
Logos=logic or reasoning
We persuade people by establishing ourselves as credible-trustworthy and believable.
We persuade people by appealing to their emotions and making them feel a certain way.
We persuade people by using facts and solid reasoning.
Rhetorical strategies are easily identified in advertising.
tools to appeal to pathos
1. emotionally loaded language=specific diction, or word choice, that evokes strong emotions in the audience
2. emotional narratives=stories that evoke strong emotions in the audience
3. imagery=descriptive details and vivid language that create mental images for the audience
Tools to Appeal to LOgos
1. facts and statistics-ex. 63 % of college students in Illinois will graduate within 6 years.
2. if/ then statements-statements of logical cause and effect; ex. If you cut class, then you may miss important information needed to pass the test.
3. commonly held beliefs-something most reasonable people accept as true; ex.The earth is round; Very few people make it to the NBA.
4. relevant expert testimony-ex.: A dermatologist (not a celebrity) explaining the benefits of an acne medication.
more tools to appeal to logos
6. definitions of terms-especially when defining jargon or technical terms relevant to the argument; ex. The term "drop-out" refers to those students who leave school and do not go on to a n alternative program.
7. explanations of ideas-ex. explaining a Christian view of creation in an argument supporting the teaching of evolution in school
8. details that come from objective reporting-ex. a newspaper article
Tools to Appeal to Ethos
1. Use accurate information from credible, reliable sources. Cite your sources correctly.
2. Accurately address and refute counterclaims.
3. Be logical and not overly emotional.
4. Establish common ground with your audience.
5. Show knowledge of and commitment to the subject and audience.
6. Establish a personal connection to the subject and to the audience.
How is ethos used in this Nike ad with tennis star Serena Williams? pathos? logos?
CLAIM=one viewpoint or opinion in an argument; a valid claim cannot be a fact or a widEly held belief.
counterclaim= a different viewpoint or opinion that opposes the claim in some way
There must be
for every claim and counterclaim.
Support answers the question why.
EX: High school should not begin earlier than 9am because studies show growing teenagers need extra sleep.
High school should begin before 9am because students need to get out early enough to work and participate in after school activities.