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Transcript of Sigmund Freud
OTHER PUBLISHED WORKS & CONTROVERSIAL VIEWS
After many years of work together, Breuer ended the relationship, feeling that Freud placed too much emphasis on the sexual origins of a patient's neuroses (mental disorders) and was completely unwilling to consider other viewpoints.
Freud continued to refine his own argument and in 1900, and published The Interpretation of Dreams.
He followed it in 1901 with The Psychopathology of Everyday Life and in 1905 with Three Essays on the Theory of Sexuality.
Most of his contemporaries felt, like Breuer, that his emphasis on sexuality was either scandalous or overplayed.
FREUD'S STRUGGLE WITH CANCER
FREUD DURING WORLD WAR I
World War I brought the movement of psychoanalysis to a halt, with doctors and practicing physicians unable to spread the findings of their research and exchange new ideas.
Freud was still productive however, and even published a book in that time called Beyond the Pleasure Principle (1923)
However, many of his books were burned by the Nazis
The Id, Ego, and the Superego
The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to a knowledge of the unconscious activities of the mind.
Dreams are often most profound when they seem the most crazy.
Men are more moral than they think and far more immoral than they can imagine.
Most people do not really want freedom, because freedom involves responsibility, and most people are frightened of responsibility.
He that has eyes to see and ears to hear may convince himself that no mortal can keep a secret. If his lips are silent, he chatters with his fingertips; betrayal oozes out of him at every pore.
Civilization began the first time an angry person cast a word instead of a rock.
Sigmund Freud was born in Freiberg, Austria on May 6, 1856.
When he was four years old his family moved to Vienna, the town where he would live and work for most of the remainder of his life
Studied at University of Vienna
Freud became fascinated with the emotional disorder known as hysteria.
Later, Freud and his friend and mentor Dr. Josef Breuer introduced him to the case study of a patient known as Anna O., who was really a woman named Bertha Pappenheim.
Her symptoms included a nervous cough, tactile anesthesia and paralysis.
Over the course of her treatment, the woman recalled several traumatic experiences, which Freud and Breuer believed contributed to her illness.
The two concluded that having her talk about her experiences had a calming effect on the symptoms.
Freud and Breuer published the work Studies in Hysteria in 1895.
Bertha Pappenheim herself who referred to the treatment as "the talking cure."
Dr. Josef Breuer
At the highest point of his career, Freud was diagnosed with oral cancer (cancer of the mouth), which left him in a state of constant pain and discomfort.
Then, Freud was frightened into leaving the country after his daughter Anna and himself were interrogated by the Gestapo police (Freud was an Austrian Jew).
In 1938, he took refuge in Paris with the help of his friend, Princess Marie Bonaparte.
Bonaparte also tried to rescue Freud's four younger sisters, but was unable to do so, and all four women later died in Nazi concentration camps.
Princess Marie Bonaparte
(with Freud in the middle)
"What progress we are making. In the Middle Ages they would have burnt me; nowadays they are content with burning my books."
As Austrian Jews, Marie, Pauline and Regine were sent to Treblinka in 1942. They died there in the gas chambers. Esther was deported to Theresienstadt in 1943. She died there after being severely beaten.
Anna, however, escaped to New York and survived the war, and Freud left for London.
When Freud was 26, he fell in love with 21-year-old Martha Bernays and they became engaged two months later
Still living with his parents, Freud's science lab job did not pay enough to support a family.
Six months after they met, Freud gave up his scientific career and become a doctor
He spent three years training at the Vienna General Hospital, rarely seeing Martha
After four years of waiting, Freud and Bernays were married on September 14, 1886.
The two went on to have six children.
"My sweet girl, it only pains me to think I should be so powerless to prove my love for you..."
--A line from a love letter Freud wrote to Martha
FREUD'S FAMILY LIFE
Freud had been a heavy cigar smoker all his life which was what probably lead him to contract mouth cancer
Even after he was diagnosed he never gave up the cigars, believing they made him more creative and productive
Freud had to use crude prosthetic to talk and eat
He had more than thirty surgeries to treat his cancer but the cancer did not reduce and he was in constant discomfort
16 years after he was diagnosed, Freud told his doctor, Dr. Max Schur, to give him 21 milligrams of morphine; a lethal dose
Freud died of the lethal dose of morphine on September 23, 1939.
"He really was a control freak, so it's not surprising he would want to control his own death. He desired and achieved a reconciled death, what he would consider a good death."
--Dr. Jack McCue, author of "Freud's Physician-Assisted Death"
"I want the most graceful exit possible, and I think that's what most people want."
Dr. Max Schur
The Freudian Slip
Regine, Marie, Esther and Pauline
The Conscious and Unconscious Mind
Life and Death Instincts
•The Conscious and Unconscious Mind
•The Id, Ego, and Superego
•Life and Death Instincts
•Psychosexual Development (and The Oedipus Complex)
• The "Freudian Slip"
FREUD'S FAMOUS THEORIES
While we are fully aware of what is going on in the conscious mind, we have no idea of what information is stored in the unconscious mind.
The unconscious contains important and sometimes disturbing material which we need to keep out of awareness because they are too threatening to acknowledge fully.
The unconscious mind continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are unaware of these underlying influences.
The conscious mind includes everything that we are aware of. This is the aspect of our mental processing that we can think and talk about rationally.
A part of this includes our memory, which can be retrieved easily at any time and brought into our awareness from the unconscious.
Life Instincts (Eros)
Death Intincts (Thanatos)
The life instincts are those that deal with basic survival, pleasure, and reproduction. These instincts are important for sustaining the life of the individual as well as the continuation of the species. While they are often called sexual instincts, these drives also include such things as thirst, hunger, and pain avoidance. The energy created by the life instincts is known as libido. Behaviors commonly associated with the life instinct include love, cooperation, and other social actions.
Initially described in his book Beyond the Pleasure Principle, Freud proposed that “the goal of all life is death". He noted that after people experience a traumatic event, they reenact the experience. He concluded that people hold an unconscious desire to die, but that this wish is largely tempered by the life instincts. In Freud’s view, self-destructive behavior is an expression of the energy created by the death instincts. When this energy is directed outward onto others, it is expressed as aggression and violence.
According to Freud, personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages during which the pleasure-seeking energies of the Id become focused. If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. (i.e, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating)
A Freudian slip is a verbal or memory mistake that is believed to be linked to the unconscious mind. Common examples include an individual calling his or her spouse by an ex's name, calling one's female teacher "Mom", saying the wrong word or even misinterpreting a written or spoken word.
FREUD'S COCAINE YEARS
Freud wrote letters to his fiancee about the many self-experiments in which he had swallowed various quantities of cocaine, finding it useful in relieving brief episodes of depression and anxiety.
Cocaine may or may not have influenced Freud’s transformative notions of psychology
During the period of Freud’s addiction (or, at the very least, abuse), he wrote frequently about cocaine, making plenty of references to its debilitating effect on his clarity of thought.
He rarely mentions the drug after 1896. That was the year in which Freud's father died.
As Freud wrote almost three decades later, “the study on coca was an allotrion” — an idle pursuit that distracts from serious responsibilities — “which I was eager to conclude.”
It appears unlikely that Freud used cocaine after 1896, during the years when he mapped out and composed his best-known and most influential works
The Oedipal complex is a term used by Sigmund Freud in his theory of psychosexual stages of development to describe a boy's feelings of desire for his mother and jealously and anger towards his father.
The Oedipal complex occurs in the Phallic stage of psychosexual development.
Parallel to this is the analogous stage for girls is known as the Electra complex in which girls feel desire for their fathers and jealousy of their mothers.
The term was named after the character in Sophocles' Oedipus Rex who accidentally kills his father and marries his mother.