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Special Education - LD, ADHD, EBD, ASD

Definition, Characteristics, Prevalence, Teaching Practices and Classroom Management Strategies for each of the Exceptional Children Identifications above

Maria Garrido

on 14 April 2014

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Transcript of Special Education - LD, ADHD, EBD, ASD

Learning Disability
A disorder in one or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or using language, spoken or written, which may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or do mathematical calculations.

Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
Emotional or Behavioral Disorders
Special Education


Classroom strategies for students identified as ADHD
Classroom strategies for students identified as LD
Classroom strategies for students identified as EBD
Autism Spectrum Disorders

Classroom strategies for students identified as ASD
United States
2.4 million students identified as LD in public schools
5.26% of all students enrolled in public schools
Boys outnumber girls (2/3 boys, 1/3 girls)
North Carolina
Wake County Public Schools
In Wake County there are 20,353 students who receive Special Education Services (out of 149,508 students enrolled)
As classroom teachers, we must be knowledgeable of these students and the best modifications and interventions that facilitate their learning within the classroom and the general curriculum standards
According to IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, 2004) there are 13 different classifications for students who receive Special Education Services.
We will study the four most prevalent categories:
Learning Disabilities (LD)
Attention Deficit Disorder (ADHD) (under the umbrella of OHI -Other Health Impairment)
Emotional or Behavioral Disorder (EBD)
Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD)
General unexpected underachievement
SLD in Language
Reading: Difficulties with decoding, phonological and phonemic awareness; difficulties with fluency and expression
Writing: Difficulties with handwriting, spelling and composition
Speaking: Difficulties with syntax, semantics and pragmatics
SLD in Mathematics
Difficulty with basic mathematical facts
Difficulty with multi-step problems
(National Center for Education Statistics)
(U.S. Department of Education, IDEA 2004)
67, 160 students identified as LD in public schools
4.97% of all students enrolled in public schools
(National Center for Education Statistics)
7,554 students identified as LD
38% of students with IEPs identified as LD
5% of all students enrolled
(NC Department of Public Instruction)
Neurological disfunction that impairs:
Executive functions of the frontal lobe:
Behavior inhibition
Persistent goal directed behavior
Emotion control
Impulse control
Working memory:
Time management
Limited "holding space"
Inner Speech:
Problem Solving
Behavior Guidance
ADHD, Hyperactive-Impulsive
Moves and fidgets constantly
Difficulty with seated activities
Acts without thinking of consequences
Difficulty controlling temper
(NC Department of Public Instruction)
ADHD, Inattentive
Appears not to pay attention to detail
Difficulty following directions
Difficulty completing work
Misplaces things
Becomes bored easily
Poor organizational skills
ADHD, Combined
United States
Classified under Other Health Impairment (OHI)
(IDEA, 2004)
6.4 million children identified as ADHD
11% of all children in United States
(Center for Disease Control and Prevention )
North Carolina
16.4% of all children in NC
NC - state with highest rate of ADHD diagnosis in the country
33,585 Students identified as OHI enrolled in public schools
2.3% of all students enrolled in public schools
(NC Department of Instruction)
Wake County Public Schools
5,060 students identified as OHI
25% of students with IEPs identified as OHI
3.38% of all students enrolled
(NC Department of Instruction)
A condition which, for a long period of time and
to a marked extent, is characterized by:

Inability to build or maintain "satisfactory" relationships
Inappropriate behavior or feelings under normal circumstances
Pervasive mood of unhappiness or depression
tTendency to develop physical symptoms or fears associated with problems

to the extent that their education
is adversely affected

(US Department of Education, IDEA, 2004)
Breadth of Disorders
Anxiety Disorders
Bipolar Disorders
Conduct Disorders
Eating Disorders
Obsessive-Compulsive Disorders
Psychotic Disorders
United States
8.3 million of school-aged children show symptoms (or 4.3%)
2.9 million are identified as EBD
North Carolina
(National Center for Education Statistics)
6,351 students with EBD in public schools
0.47% of students enrolled in public schools
Wake County Public Schools
(National Center for Education Statistics)
826 students identified as EBD
4% of students with IEPs identified as EBD
0.55% of all students enrolled
(NC Department of Public Instruction)
Abnormality of the brain structure
Persistent deficits in social communication and social interaction across multiple contexts
Restricted, repetitive patterns of behavior, interests, or activities
Symptoms must be present in the early developmental period (typically recognized in the first two years of life); and,
Symptoms cause clinically significant impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of current functioning.
Criteria for ASD
At least six items from 1, 2, and 3
with at least two from 1 and one
from each of 2 and 3

1) Impairement in Social Interaction
Impairment in use of nonverbal behaviors to regulate social interaction
Failure to develop peer relationships
Lack of spontaneous seeking to share enjoyment
Lack of social or emotional reciprocity
2) Impairments in Communication
Delay in or total lack of spoken language
For those with speech-- inability to initiate or sustain conversation
Stereotyped and repetitive use of language (scripts)
Lack of varied or spontaneous make believe or imaginative play

3) Restricted and stereotyped
patterns of behavior, interest, and activity
Preoccupation with 1 or more stereotyped and restricted patterns of interest- that are abnormal or intense in focus
Inflexible adherence to specific, nonfunctional routines, or rituals
Stereotyped and repetitive motor mannerisms (such as hand flapping)
Persistent preoccupation with parts of objects

United States
1 in 68 children are identified as ASD
5 times more common in boys than in girls
More common in Caucasian children
(Center for Control Disease and Prevention)
North Carolina
11,756 students identified as ASD
0.87% of all students enrolled in public schools
(National Center for Education Statistics)
Wake County Public Schools
2,379 students identified as ASD
11.7% of students with IEP identified as ASD
1.6% of students enrolled
(NC Department of Public Instruction)
Special Education Students' Presentation

Smith, D (2009).
Introduction to Special Education. Making a Difference
(7th. Edition) Pearson: Boston, MA

North Carolina Department of Public Instruction- Exceptional Children

National Center for Education Statistics

Center for Disease Control and Prevention

National Center for Learning Disabilities

Effective Teaching Practices
Content enhancements: Graphic organizers; mnemonics; write assignments on board
Direct, explicit instruction: Explain assignments carefully and explicitly; direct modeling
Scaffolding: Adapt assignment content, length or due dates; provide prompts or strategies; break learning into small steps
Self-monitoring: Regular, quality feedback; well-designed, independent practice; involve students in process type questions (How is this strategy working? Where else could you apply it?)
Sequential, multi-sensory approach to teaching
Classroom Management Strategies
Manage the physical environment: Keep loud noise and distractions to a minimum; arrange desks for effective flow; dismiss students in small groups
Prevent problem behaviors: Comprehensive behavior management plan; remind students of classroom expectations; provide frequent positive feedback; introduce new activities and schedules gradually.
Support student independence: Teach and support time management skills; teach self-regulation strategies; announce approaching transitions
Effective Teaching Practices
Classroom Management Strategies
Explicitly teach: Playground rules, comprehension of nonverbal expressions, social conventions, asking for permission and sharing skills
Pair with a class buddy: Match students with similar interests, create opportunities, change pairs monthly
Avoid frustrating situations for the student: by scaffolding and using direct instruction and modeling
Provide structure for learning: Visual schedule, reminders, procedures and routines
Promote effective completion of assignments: Define goals clearly, provide concrete examples, offer rationale for completing assignments, provide clear, concise directions, state allowed time, explain expectations for tasks and assignments
Provide structure for on-task behavior: assign classmate to help student stay on task, tailor pace of instruction to students' needs, arrange more frequent, shorter study periods.
Support Self-Management Skills: Have students evaluate their own work, guide them to correct their mistakes, teach and practice study skills, teach learning techniques such as content organizers, teach self-regulation strategies
Take into account the student's cultural style
Monitor student learning and modify or supplement instruction if needed
Effective Teaching Strategies
Set the stage by establishing a positive relationship grounded in trust, safety and predictability
Be firm
Begin with proactive approaches to clarify expectations and rules for academic and social performance
Teach relevant skills (i.e. raising hands) that are likely to produce better results than undesirable behaviors (i.e. yelling or talking out)
Teach empathy, social skills and problem solving strategies as part of the regular school program
For assignments, tasks or direct instruction: Be clear and direct, allow at least 10 seconds of response time, be relatively close to the student when giving a task, assignment or command
Behavior Management Strategies
Establish common rules and expectations for all students in all school settings
Reinforce students who follow the rules and meet the expectations
Provide more intensive levels of support to meet the behavioral, social and academic needs of the students who are not responding to the initial efforts
Provide constant positive feedback in academic, social and behavioral areas
Device a plan with the student of what should happen if the student feels frustrated, angry or emotional
Effective Teaching Practices
Make events predictable: Develop a schedule, make new experiences predictable, avoid surprises, do not make unannounced changes (when possible), provide structure and routine, know how well the student handles free time and plan for it
Communicate instructions carefully: use direct statements, do not use slang or metaphors, avoid using only nonverbal cues, use personal pronouns carefully
Foster positive participation: provide feedback about the appropriateness of responses, tell the student when behavior is proper, arrange tasks that the individual can perform, translate time into something tangible or visible (i.e. elapsed time timers), enhance verbal communication with illustrations and pictures, use concrete examples
Behavior Management Strategies
Communicate expectations and consequences of inappropriate behavior clearly
Use visual reminders of appropriate behaviors; redirect student to these when necessary
Seek consistency in other staff member's responses to appropriate and inappropriate behavior
Replace inappropriate behaviors with alternate ones that are productive and incompatible with the inappropriate behaviors.
Use positive feedback frequently for appropriate behaviors
Use PBIS interventions when necessary
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