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Western Europe Revives, 1000- 1200

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by

Amy Kiefling

on 21 October 2015

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Transcript of Western Europe Revives, 1000- 1200

New plow that used draft harness for wagons that enabled seeds to be sown deeper into the soil.
Iron horseshoes to protect the feet
Horse collar - allowed weight to be shifted from the horses throat to its shoulders

Background: Western Europe begins to transition from a subsistence agricultural economy to a more urban economy.

This is due to population growth, advances in technology, and trade.
Western Europe Revives, 1000- 1200
The Role of Agricultural Technology
Independent cities (not under the king's jurisdiction) first emerged in Italy and in Flanders.
Cities relied on manufacturing and trade
Serfs were given their freedom if they moved into a city - so cities were attractive alternatives for laborers
Cities built walls for protection
Cities and the Rebirth of the Trade
City of Venice monopolized trade on the Adriatic and Mediterranean Sea
Italian city-states (Venice & Genoa) profited from the spice trade
Italian City-States
Christian military campaigns against the Muslims in the eastern Mediterranean
Goal was to recover the Holy Land from the Muslims
Crusades - Holy Wars
Lasted from 1095 - 1204
The Crusades
Latin Church wanted to limit the fighting between Christian kings - Truce of God
Land = Power
Italian merchants wanted to increase trade in the Mediterranean Sea
Church wanted to assert power
Roots of the Crusades
Western Europe, 1000 - 1200
Pilgrimages
Pilgrims traveled under royal protection
Visited famous churches to see sacred relics
Visited cities of Rome, Jerusalem, Antioch
Pilgrims under attack
Pilgrims came under attack as the Byzantine Empire's power declined in the region
Umayyad Caliphate controlled Spain
Turks controlled the Holy Land
Pope Urban II
Byzantine Emperor asked Pope for help confronting the Muslim threat
"God Wills It" - Council of Clermont in 1095
Pope promised to free knights from their penance, or acts of atonement from prior sins
First Crusade captured Jerusalem in 1099 - Kingdom of Jerusalem
In 1204, the Crusaders sacked Constantinople
Impact of the Crusades
Reintroduction of Classical ideas, texts, history
Trade flourished
Courtly Love - Eleanor of Aquitaine
Rivalry between England and France intensifies due to Eleanor of Aquitaine
Full transcript