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One Dharma Nirvana =No desires? Why no self? The cause of suffering
dukkha samudaya No-Self, no-way Suffering and its cause
First Noble Truth A morally ordered universe Determined by karma & free? NOT effect of
God's will Morally Ordered Universe Karma (sanskrit)
Kamma (pali) "What distinguishes the Buddha’s doctrine of kamma from classical monotheistic traditions is that the causal relationship between good or bad actions and happy or unhappy results is not understood as the effect of a just god dispensing rewards and punishments. " (Gowans, 43) Dilemma: If karma determines future actions,
then future actions cannot be free. If future
are free, karma has little power or significance. "First Noble Truth. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering:birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation fromwhat is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering;in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering". "Second Noble Truth. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to renewed exis- tence, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for existence, craving for extermination." The Buddha believed that, if we observe carefully, we will realize that what we call the self is really nothing other than the follow- ing five aggregates (khandhas): material form (especially our sense organs), feelings or sensations (as pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral), perceptions or cognitions (involving judgments about the world), mental formations (desires, wishes, and volitions), and consciousness (awareness). If we inspect each of these carefully, the Buddha maintained, we will see that none of them is permanent: each of them is in a constant process of change. But if what we call the self is nothing more than these aggregates, and these aggregates constantly change, then what we call the self cannot be a being that persists through time in some respects unchanged. There is no self in that sense. "First, he was, in a wide sense of the term, a kind of empiricist: he thought we come to understand reality on the basis of experience broadly construed to include not only ordinary sense-experience but also the experi- ence of meditation. Second, he believed that experience shows that everything in the universe is ontologically interconnected and in a state of change (except Nibba ̄na). There are no beings at all that are ontologically distinct from one another and persist through time unchanged. The world is more accurately thought of as a complex of mutually interdependent processes of change. The not-self doctrine is part of this more general position. " Third Noble Truth. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, nonreliance on it. Fourth Noble Truth. Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering. It is this Noble Eightfold Path; that is right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration. compassion clearly involves desire in some sense –6 namely, the desire that others fare well. Moreover, no human life is possible7 that does not involve some elementary desires such as for food or sleep.8 Surely the Buddha did not mean to deny this (in fact, the extreme asceticism9 he rejected would seem to have been an endeavor to achieve freedom from20111 any desires in this life). But the Buddha did think the realization that we are1 not selves would bring about a fundamental change in our attitude towards2 those desires that would remain. This realization would eliminate clinging or3 attachment to the satisfaction of these desires, "the Buddha would regard the world of modern science as incomplete insofar as this world was taken to be morally neutral. For the Buddha, the moral order of the universe is contained first and foremost in the doctrines of kamma and rebirth." originally translated 'action', Buddha
focuses on "volition". DUKKHA: "We seek enduring happiness by trying to attach ourselves to things that are in constant change...For the time being, we may summarize the first Noble Truth as the claim that human lives regularly lack contentment, fulfillment, perfection, security, and the like." (Gowans) "The Second Noble Truth states that the source of our discontentment is found not simply in our desires, but in the connection we forge between desires and happiness" The Buddha referred to this general phenomenon as dependent origination (pat.icca amuppa ̄da). In a brief expression of this doctrine, he said: ‘When this exists, that comes to be; with the arising of this, that arises. When this does not exist that does not come to be; with the cessation of this, that ceases’ (M 655).Sa ̄riputta, the Buddha’s disciple known for his wisdom, declared that ‘one who sees dependent origination sees the Dhamma; one who sees the Dhamma sees dependent origination’ (M 283). Obtaining what we are hoping to gain and safety from what we are trying to avoid will not bring us real happiness. This can only be achieved by a radical transformation of our desires and aversions – and especially of our attitudes towards them. The eight steps of the path are to be pursued not in sequence, but all together, with each step reinforcing the others (though the last two, right mind- fulness and right concentration, are the culmination). The Buddha divided these steps into three parts: wisdom pertains primarily to intellectual develop- ment and conviction (right view and intention), virtue concerns moral or ethical training (right speech, action, and livelihood), and concentration – often rendered as ‘meditation’ – involves a set of mental disciplines (right effort, mindfulness, and concentration). Wisdom, virtue, and concentration
virtue without wisdom.....
wisdom without virtue.... What else is there? Myth of Sisyphus -
http://www.nyu.edu/classes/keefer/hell/camus.html wisdom...knowledge...truth Sisyphus? Parmenides and Heraclitus
grappled with similar issues of
change and permanence.