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Transcript of Japan
History of Japan
Communication Styles and Behaviors
Japan and America agrees to broaden security between one another.
Was once called Nippon or Nihan
Agriculture played a huge roll in Japanese History.
Rice cultivation and use of metal tools started in Japan in 300 BCE
Government was centered on emperor
Wealthy Class/ Aristocracy
-This class was centered around Buddhist culture which came from a strong influence from China and Korea in the 8 century. This lasted til WW2
Warrior (Samurai) society-12th century seized power and became the center of government.
Ended in middle of 19th century.
Espionage in Japan
the history of the
properly called "shinobi"
They were an opposing force to the upper class Samurai in early Japan.
Their specialized skills in unconventional warfare, espionage, and assassinations contradicted the Samurai code “Bushido.” Therefore, developed Ninjutsu “the art of stealth”
“Sneak attacks, poison, seduction and spying were all shameful to the samurai, but fair play by the rules of the ninja.” http://asianhistory.about.com/od/warsinasia/p/NinjaProfile.htm
•Because of the strict “Bushido” code, Samurai leaders often hired ninja to do work that goes against their warrior code.
Most ninjas learned their skills from ex-communicated Samurai such as "Daisuke Togakure" (http://asianhistory.about.com/od/warsinasia/p/NinjaProfile.htm)
Ninjas are ninjas from birth
there were even female ninjas
(Special Weapons and Tactics)
For long range they used long and short bows
Shuriken and knives
Female ninja weapons
Ninjas often used the cover from smoke and the darkness to get away
They also made explosives with shrapnel and tools
Matthew Perry and the "Black Ships"
Meiji Period 1868-1912
Military Conflicts before WW1 and WW2
Taisho Period 1912-1926
Post WW2 to 1989
Heisei Period: 1989-Present
Values framework of Japanese History
Population 127 million
22% is over 65 years old
Japan is made of four main islands
Japan's Capital City, Tokyo, is located in Honshu
Mount fuji is also located in Honshu
Akan National Park
Hokkaido's largest city
Castle in Kumamoto
Back to those Stats...
Prime Minister: Shinzo Abe
Cultural Values Framework
Communication Styles and Behaviors
Daily Life/ Traditions
Commodore Matthew Perry arrived in Japan on his fleet of kuro-fun, “Black Ships” on July 14th, 1853
His mission was to force Japan to open its ports for American ships
The Tokugawa Shogunate wanted to avoid conflict but his opposing forces wanted him to declare war with the United States
Japan gave into the demands of the US allowing two ports to be open to American Ships and set laws to protect Americans in Japan
the opposing forces to the Tokugawa Shogunate in Japan were unhappy and a Civil War known as the Boshin War began in 1868 between Tokugawa Shogunate and Imperial Factions. Then Emperor Edo was captured by the Imperial Army in 1868 and 16 year old Emperor Meiji came to power.
known as the “Period of Enlightened Rule”
start of political, social, and military reforms in Japan
Capital moved to Tokyo from Kyoto
the Meiji government started their “constitution” known as the Five Charter Oath of 1868 which created a more democratic style of government
During this time Japan became more modernized in western knowledge and customs
Aims of the Five Charter Oath of 1868
1.Establishment of deliberative assemblies
2. Involvement of all classes in carrying out state affairs
3. The revocation of sumptuary laws and class restrictions on employment
4. Replacement of "evil customs" with the "just laws of nature"
5. An international search for knowledge to strengthen the foundations of imperial rule.
Conscription Law-healthy male Japanese Citizens had to serve two to three years in the first reserves and two in the second.
Those who did not want to join would harm themselves severely to avoid admittance
In 1877 the newly formed army under the Meiji government was tested. Takamori Saigo led a rebellion of Samurai in Kyushu. Meiji army defeated the “Last Samurai” and beheaded Takamori Saigo. The era of the Samurai ended.
First Sino-Japanese War- Desire to control Korea caused tension between China and Japan in 1894. War ended on April 17, 1895 with the signing of the Treaty of Shimonoseki. China then allowed Korea to be Independent and payed 510,000,000 yen in war reparations
Russo-Japanese War- Russia did not want Japan to gain Port Arthur in the Liaodong province so they fought with Japan and persuaded Germany and France to place diplomatic pressure on Japan to relieve Liaodong Peninsula for 450,000,000 yen. Is now commonly referred as the Triple Intervention. Hostility between Russia and Japan remained and the Russo-Japanese War erupted during 1904-1905
Emperor Meiji died on July 30, 1912 allowing Emperor Taisho to rise to power who reigned until December 25, 1926.
Sparked the liberal movement known as the “Taisho Democracy”
Emperor Hirohito’s (Showa) reigned from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989.
Longest reign of a Japanese emperor
known as the “period of enlightened peace”
Just as the rest of the world Japan’s economy suffered during the Great Depression during the 1920’s
rise of militarism and ultra-nationalism (1926-1937)- because of the economic recession the government had lost control over the strength of the military and acted aggressively invading Manchuria in 1931. This was to increase security from Communist Russia in the North. Japan was then withdrawn from the league of nations. Japan then became a feared nation especially after signing the Anti-Comintern Pact with Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy in 1936
Second Sino- Japanese War- Japan invaded China causing a war. By 1939 most of China’s main cities such as Beijing, Nanjing, and Shanghai were under Japanese control. On August 1, 1940 Matsuok Yosuke proposed the idea of the “Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere.” This caused tension and flee from Western Nations.
On September 27,1940 Japan signed the Tripartite Pact creating the Rome-Tokyo-Berlin Axis powers of World War 2.
In July 1941, President Roosevelt created an oil embargo against Japan for its refusal to withdraw troops from China and French Indochina
To stop American naval intervention in the Pacific Japan attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. As a result Japan gained control of Burma, Siam (Thailand), the Philippines, and the Dutch East Indies.
America retaliated to the Pearl Harbor attacks with the Battle of Midway on June 4 -June 7, 1942 weakening Japan’s navy.
Then the US would engage in “island hopping” to take over Japanese islands
The war with Japan finally ended when the U.S. dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945 then three days later on Nagasaki. Japan finally surrendered on August 14, 1945.
Japan was occupied by the Allied Powers (led by the US) after the war under the command of General Douglas MacArthur.
Japan suffered from a food shortage causing starvation. MacArthur then helped Japan by distributing food through food networks.
Article Nine- this prevented Japan from maintaining a standing army and using war as an instrument of state policy.
This occupation of Japan ended on April 28, 1952 with the signing of the San Francisco Peace Treaty months before on September 8, 1951.
As a result of this peace treaty Japan was able to be an Independent nation again but had to give up sovereignty over Korea, Taiwan, and Sakhalin. Also U.S. military bases were to be allowed in Japan.
With the protection of America, Japan was given the oppertunity to allow their economy to grow.
The economy continued to grow substantially until the economic crisis in the early 90’s
began on January 8, 1989 when Emperor Hiroto (Showa) died and his son Akihito (the current emperor) came to power.
the 90’s were known as the “lost decade” because of the huge economic downturn. Real estate and stock values fell way below a normal amount causing Japan to have major debt during this time.
Although Japan has had tremendous trade with automobiles, industrial machinery, and computer accessories with the U.S. they are still in a large amount of debt.
Facts about the Samurai
"the way of the warrior"
or the Samurai way of life
It was influenced by practices of Shinto and Zen Buddhism and was meant to alleviate the violence of the Samurai with wisdom and serenity.
Rectitude or Justice
Benevolence or Mercy
Honesty or Sincerity
Character and Self-Control
History of the Samurai
1185-1333 Kamakura Government: The Samurai replaced all of the courts governments, in managing local governments.
Because the government had no police, bands of Samurai gained power, all because the Heian government rejected administration of the provinces.
Minamoto family in 1185 took control over Kamakura government which means he takes control over the Samurai also
1192 Minamoto Family took power from Heian Government which whom in the beginning denied them power of the provinces.
Kamikaze (deadly winds on the sea) save the samurai ages
when China tried to invade japan.
1336-1573 Kamakura lost control of the country to a rival Samurai family, the Ashikaga family
when they took control they moved the capital of japan back to Kyoto.
even though they had power they still didn't have
complete power over Kamakura just yet.
1600-1868 The Tokugawa Government took over and legally differentiated four classes of society~ Samurai, farmers artisans, and merchants.
Concerned with a possible samurai rebellion they took weapons away from every other social class.
created many jobs because someone had to take care of the samurai’s
1868 people wanted change because they were tired of the old days, so the age of the Samurai ended…
Katana and Wakizashi
Communication Styles in Japan v.s. America
Tendency to avoid conflict
reluctant to present negative information
tend to be straight-foward and honest
differences should be brought forward and resolved
"Silence is golden"
only communicate by words
can communicate in other ways besides words such as body language
"racially and culturally homogeneous with a long history of tradition" (http://www.wwu.edu/auap/english/gettinginvolved/CultureComparison.shtml)
so they expect everyone to communicate in the same way as themselves
recognize themselves as a more diverse and immigrant culture so communication sometimes conveys a message to where someone is from
language expresses relationships, solidarity, and feelings
language is used for persuasive reasons and to explain facts
Japanese Behaviors vs. America
Conflict and Conflict Resolution
Business Etiquette in Japan
Wealthy Class Homes
Sports and Clubs
Fukushima daiichi nuclear plant was wrecked by Tokyo Electric power Company
Amazon's Kindle is top-selling e-reader
Being fat in Japan is now Illegal!
Most information is from a powerpoint presentation created by Sarah Fremerman Apilton who holds a B.A. in East Asian Studies from Yale University and a Ph.D in Religious Studies
( emphasis on Japnese Buddhism) from Stanford University. Here is the link to the powerpoint
Stats and facts from:
information about ninja came from:
information about modern history came from:
Links to images and videos can be found here
information about cultural values came from: