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ADVANCED GRAMMAR THREE

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Ricardo Velasquez

on 16 October 2017

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Transcript of ADVANCED GRAMMAR THREE

ADVANCED GRAMMAR THREE
gerunds
What is a gerund?
Gerunds & gerund phrases work as:
- Subjects
-objects
-Complements
To make a gerund negative add:
NOT
Many verbs & verb phrases have gerunds as objects:
e.g.
avoid
consider
enjoy
keep
mind
Go + gerund
For recreational activities.
I go jogging in the mornings.
I always go shopping on holidays.
objects of prepositions
*verb + preposition
They have a
reason for
not inviting him.
*adjective + preposition
I'm
good at
failing students.
'TO' can be a preposition or part of an infinitive.
He is accustomed to playing video games.
preposition
He loves to play video games.
part of infinitive
possessive noun
or
pronoun
+
gerund
simple gerund
past gerund
Playing
soccer is a healthy activity.
Having studied
grammar with Mr. Velásquez helped me with my final exam.
WE USE PAST GERUNDS TO EMPHASIZE THE DIFFERENCE IN TIME BETWEEN TWO ACTIONS.
PASSIVE GERUNDS
PRESENT
PAST
Being + p.p
having been + p.p.
infinitives
what is an infinitive?
It is the combination of:

to + base form
Infinitives can often perform the same function as nouns.
*They act as subjects
*They act as objects
*They act as subject complements
To eat what you cooked is tempting.
I'd love to be a teacher.
The students' mission is to study responsibly.
ADVERBS
what's an adverb?
Adverbs modify verbs, adjectives and other adverbs.
*I tend to think about life.
*I tend to think
deeply
about life.
Some adverbs also modify entire sentences.
*Everybody will pass the course.
*
Hopefully
, everybody will pass the course.
adverbs that modify sentences are called
sentence adverbs
because they express an opinion or view about an entire sentence
Common sentence adverbs are:
Actually
basically
certainly
clearly
definitely
essentially
fortunately
hopefully
obviously
overall
maybe
perhaps
possibly
surely
some adverbs can function as sentence adverbs or as simple adverbs.
*He spoke
frankly
.
*
Frankly
, he spoke a lot of nonsense.
Sentence adverbs can be used in various places in a sentence.
*
Actually,
I don't really like grammar.
*I don't like grammar
, actually
.
*I
actually
don't like grammar.
*I am
actually
not a fan of grammar.
*I may
actually
not be a fan of grammar.
(after)
(before)
(before verbs)
(after be)
(after modals with be)
focus adverbs
They focus attention on a word or phrase.
they usually come before the word or phrase focused on.
Examples of focus adverbs are:
even
just
only
almost
negative adverbs
In sentences or clauses beginning with a negative adverb, put the verb before the subject to emphasize the negative meaning.
*Students are
never
forced to do all their homework.
*
Never
are students forced to do their homework.
If the verb is in the simple present, simple past or a perfect form (except for the verb be), use the auxiliaries after an initial negative adverb.
not only
+
but also
Not only
must we congratulate the teacher for his day,
but
we must
also
be the best we can.
here & there
They also force inversion when they come at the beginning of a sentence.
Here is the homework!
There goes my money!
WARNING!
Only invert the subject and verb if the subject is a noun. If it is a pronoun, do not invert them.
Adverb clauses
There are two types clauses:
Independent
Dependent
main clause
subordinate clause
when do you use a comma?
When the dependent clause comes first in the sentence.
What is an adverb clause?
They indicate
how
,
when
,
why
, or
under what conditions
. They may also introduce
contrast
.
Adverb clauses start with subordinating conjunctions.
For a list of subordinating conjunctions, go to Appendix 20 on page A-9.
Sometimes, adverb clauses come inside independent clauses.
The house
where she used to live
was in deplorable conditions.
Adverb clauses of time
They indicate
when
something happens.
These clauses are introduced by:
After
As
As soon as
Before
By the time
Once
Since
Until/ Till
when
whenever
while
others
Remember!
Never use
will
and
be going to
in the dependent clause to show future time.
Adverb clauses of place
They indicate
where
something happens.
These clauses are introduced by:
Anywhere
Everywhere
Where
Wherever
etc.
adverb clauses of reason
They indicate why something happens.
These clauses are introduced by:
As
Because
Now that

Since
etc.
ADVERB CLAUSES OF CONDITION
They indicate under what conditions something happens.
These clauses are introduced by:
Even if
If
Only if
Only if
Unless
In case
etc.
Adverb clauses of contrast
They make a contrast with the idea expressed in the independent clause.
These clauses are introduced by:
Although
Even though
Though
Whereas
While
etc.
connectors
what are connectors?
There are three types of connectors:
coordinating conjunctions
subordinating conjunctions
transitions
coordinating conjunctions
They join two independent clauses.
F
A
N
B
O
Y
S
OR
ND
OR
UT
R
ET
O
SUBORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS
They connect ideas with sentences.
If
Even if
Only if
Unless
Although
Though
Even though
Whereas
While
As
Because
Since
After
Before
When
While
transitions
They connect ideas between sentences or larger sections of text.
Some transitions connect blocks of text.
Common transitions:
Besides
Consequently
However
In addition
Nevertheless
Otherwise
Therefore
CONDITIONALS
WHAT
ARE
CONDITIONALS?
Conditional sentences describe situations that happen (or not) because of certain conditions.
They consist of two clauses:
If you study, the exam will be easy.
(if clause)
(independent result clause)
there are two types f conditionals:
Real
UNreal
situation that happen regularly. situations likely or possible in the future.
situations that are untrue, unlikely or impossible in the present or past.
present real conditionals
We use them to talk about general truths, scientific facts, or habits and repeated events.
Mr. Velásquez gets frustrated if you

don't do your homework.
(simple present)
(simple present)
In future-time situations
simple present
or
present progressive
+
will
be going to
may
might
can
could
should
Can you use a future time in both clauses?
present unreal conditionals
WE USE THEM TO TALK ABOUT UNREAL, UNTRUE, IMAGINED, OR IMPOSSIBLE CONDITIONS AND THEIR RESULTS.
WERE
OR
SIMPLE PAST
+
COULD
MIGHT
WOULD
+
VERB
IN BASE FORM
* THE SIMPLE PAST IN THE IF CLAUSE IS ONLY FOR GRAMMAR PURPOSES, BUT NOT MEANING.
* In present unreal conditionals, never use would in the if clause.
if clause
result clause
if clause
result clause
past unreal conditionals
past perfect
+
could
might
would
+
have
+
past
participle
if clause
result clause
We often use it to express regret about a situation than actually happened in the past
never use 'would have' in the if clause in past unreal conditionals.
Unreal conditionals to express regret or sadness.
I'd be happier If my students did their homework.
Also, we use 'wish + noun clause' to express sadness or a desire for a different situation.
I wish (that) my students reviewed their intermediate books.
Formulas with wish:
1. WISH + COULD/WOULD + BASE FORM
2. WISH + SIMPLE PAST
3. wish + past perfect
to express a wish about the future.
to express a wish about the present.
to express a wish about the past.
WARNING!
'Wish' and 'hope' are different in meaning.
wish = regrets about unlikely or impossible things.
hope = Expresses a desire about events that are possible or probable.
if only
it has a similar meaning to wish.
It is followed by a noun clause without that.
if only + simple past
if only + past perfect
To express a wish about something that is contrary to fact at present.
To express a wish that something had happened differently in the past.
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