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Rome - Kingdom, Republic, Empire

a lecture given to CS history, 20 september 2012 preceded by discussion of Etruscans, followed by republic and empire

Parker Jarnigan

on 18 September 2018

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Transcript of Rome - Kingdom, Republic, Empire

title page from John Adams' 1777 edition
a world built upon another world
The History of Rome
The Etruscans
753 to 509 BCE
The Etruscan Kingdom of Rome
509 to 27 BCE
Roman Republic
27 BCE to 476 CE
Roman Empire
476 AD
Fall of the Empire...
a timeline for your
learning pleasure

Roman Kingdom
Roman Republic
Roman Empire
Fall of Rome...?

753 to 509 BCE
509 to 27
27 BCE to 476 AD
1453 AD...?
1453 AD
Wisdom of Ben Sirach
Hellenistic Judaism
evidence of Hellenistic influence on Jewish thought and theology
"He who lives forever created the whole universe"
"For not everything is within human capability, since human beings are not immortal"
"He has set in order the splendors of his wisdom; he is from all eternity one and the same. Nothing can be added or taken away."
cf. to Aristotle's description of God as the "unmoved Mover"
upper agora, Jerusalem 1st c.
a "drang nach Westen"
a number of "barbarian" groups
classical accounts include
red hair, blue eyes, no heat
social groups based on kinship
leave due to a variety of pressures, including cupidity
Aeneas flees, Romulus and Remus argue
female shortage -->
"Italy" lagged behind
Tiber River
Capitoline Wolf
first civilized people to reach Italian peninsula
few inscriptions about little
Semitic language
Romans said they came from Asia Minor
moved into Italy slowly
Battle of Cumae, 474 BCE Sardinians for sale!
...but incorporated into Rome
what did Romulus set up?
the Romans aren't rebuilding the wheel
Romans eventually find themselves at head of an old world
a patriarchal basis for society
Roman family structure
the gens and Roman nomenclature
praenomina + gentilicium (+cognomina)
Quintus, Sextus, Decimus
Caius, Lucius, Marcus
Crassus, Balbus, Rufus, Maximus
census reforms from Servius
C. Julius C.f. C.n. Caesar
the mos maiorum
fluidity of familias
aka Century Assembly
two Consuls, equal in rank
mutual veto
annual election
imperium, but...
rex sacrorum
shared functions
legal power over life and death
lictors, rods, fasces, and axes
alphabet and language
Servian wall
complex, robust legal system
12 tablets
Mediterranean command
held auctoritas
only open to patricians, ex-magistrates
landholding elites
Pontifex Maximus
Senatus consultas
appoint dictators in emergency
494 to 297 BCE
Struggle of the Orders
explaining the fall of Rome
decline in morals and values
...or Christianity?
public health
political corruption
unemployment, economic decline
urban decay
inferior technology
military spending
or did it fall?
What does it mean to fall?
internal vs. external
socio-economic explanation
merely a transition?
what does a fall look like?
what should we make of a fall?
okay, it fell
remnants of Rome
a convoluted process
steps to empire
popular tribunes, Plebian council, and veto
rise of private armies
civilization has spread West
unlike Athenians prior, Rome gives citizenship
food around the corner...in Sicily
successor states of Alexander
Celts, old and new territory
Caius Julius Caesar (100 to 44 BCE)
Cicero (106 to 43 BCE) holds fast
1st Triumvirate: Caeser, Crassus, Pompey, 60 to 53 BCE
44 BCE, stabby, stabby
2nd Triumvirate: Octavian, Lepidus, Mark Antony, 43 to 33 BCE
imperium maius
63 BCE to 14 CE
r. 27 BCE to 14 CE
the way the other half lives...
neighbors for years...
...but never friends
many "sacks"
want loot
Gaiseric, Bonifacius, & Aetius
Odoacer, Zeno, & Theodoric
tribunica potestas

imperium maius

ius intercessionis
42 BCE, Phillipi,
40 BCE, Treaty of Brundisium, republic divided btw Oct, Mark Antony, Lepidus
31 BCE - Battle of Actium
exile + suicide = Augustus
victory at Actium, wins Egypt
Caesar's heir, restore the Republic?

Pater patriae
Pontifex Maximus

a man after Old Hickory's own heart
deification? who, me?
progressive reforms in a conservative cloak...or thorax
a changing dialog a la 1984
dictatorship? republic!
Pax Romana, 27 BCE to 180 CE
27 BCE to 235 CE
284 to 476 CE
Third Century Crisis
to 284 CE
mutiny against Imp. Alexander Severus
50 years of unorganized chaos
multiple claimants
temporary split
ascension of Diocletian, 284
republican facade
autocratic absolutism
empire at 31 BCE
manifestation of socially recognized power...
...political coercion
military power
If the mind is the one and only entity that moves itself, surely it has never been born and will never die. Be sure to employ it in the best kinds of activity. Now the best concerns are for the safety of one's country. When the mind has been engaged in and exercised by those concerns it will fly more quickly to this, its dwelling place and home.
low-class, Greek-speaking emperor
luxurious lifestyle
kissing & kneeling & jewels
Princeps vs. Dominus
divine legitimacy?
293 - Diocletian's tetrarchy
rebellions and chaos
800 bce
a mysterious culture appeared on the Italian peninsula
500 bce
Etruscans absorbed by the Latin people they once ruled
1000 bce
900 bce
Latins settle in Italy
700 bce
600 bce
Etruscans expand all over Italy
*753 - Rome founded
509 bce
Romans revolt, depose Etruscan rulers
82 bce
last remaining Etruscans murdered
accounts of seven kings...
records destroyed by Gauls or lost
a virtuous woman
Romans react
Brutus reflects
an oath of vengeance
By this blood, which was so pure before the crime of the prince, I swear before you, O gods, to chase the King Lucius Tarquinius Superbus, with his criminal wife and all their offspring, by fire, iron, and all the methods I have at my disposal, and never to tolerate Kings in Rome evermore, whether of that family of any other.
Oath of Brutus
an oath's consequences
idea of Rome, idea of Europe?
Julius Caesar is killed
Republic is dead
Power struggle ensues
Where are we now
Questions for today?
What made the Romans willing to accept a king?
What does an empire look like?
Will the empire hold together?
How do we know what we know?
Pax Romana
27 bce to 180 ce
Queen Boudica and the "Pax Romana"
Read "Annals" section, p. 136-139
Questions for discussion:
What caused the rebellion?
What advantages do the Britons have?
What is Tacitus' opinion of the British rebels?
5 min
15 min
8 min
15 min
Writing prompt
Based on your reading of Tacitus, why did the Roman empire fall?
island of Mona
(in groups of 3)
Iceni revolt
60 ce
122 ce
142 ce
Reflections of the Empire
dulce et decorum est pro patria mori
65 - 8 bc
more about Roman cities
Second Triumvirate
42 - 32 BCE
kill Caesar's killers
res publica restituta...?
civil war - Antony & Octavian
31 BCE - Actium
abolished last king, Lucius Superbus
Lucius Junius Brutus
slower development of national militia
"I know why Rome fell!"
Let's investigate this thesis
breakaway state
breakaway state
What's the big idea?
Before you go...
Of the forces and realities discussed in leading to Rome's downfall, which do you predict will be a key problem for later societies? Be specific and give reasons for your answers.
...reflect and answer this question in your notes
Patricians vs Plebs
494 bce
Senate v Emperor
Want to watch a movie in class?


appointed dictator 458bc
appointed dictator 439bc
elected consul 88bc
appointed dictator 82bc
pursued aggressive growth policy
expanded into foreign nations
raised money by forging alliances with outsiders
peak control of 50 million people

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