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Jessica Whitfort

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Transcript of Cancer

Breast Cancer
Bowel Cancer
Symptoms and Treatments
Recent Advances
Recent Advances

Cancer Council (2015a) estimates 128,000 new cases of cancer will be diagnosed in Australia this year. Some of the most common cancers affecting Australians today include
1. Bowel (men and women
2. Breast (men & women)
3. Lung (men &women)

Several well known cancer websites (Australian Government Department of Health, 2015; Australian Government, 2015; Bowel Cancer Australia, 2015) describe the main screening and diagnostic methods of bowel cancer as:
An internal examination of the rectum, anus and colon – this may include a sigmoidoscopy or colonoscopy by a doctor or specialist
A blood test to check for anaemia
Imaging of the bowel, which may include barium enema, computed  tomography (CT) scan or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)
Taking a sample of tissue (biopsy) from the bowel wall for examination under a microscope

The statistics (Cancer Council, 2015d)
Cancer Council (2015a) describes bowel cancer (also known as colorectal cancer) , as cancer in any part of the colon or rectum.

Bowel cancer is a malignant growth (uncontrolled multiplication of cells) that develops most commonly in the lining of the large bowel and develop from tiny growths (polyps) into large cancerous bodies.

Bowel Cancer
The National Bowel Cancer Screening Program (NBCSP) invites men and women 50+ to participate in a free screening program at home. According to Bowel Cancer Australia (2015), this screening program involves the self use of a screening kit called a Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) also known as an immunochemical Faecal Occult Blood Test (iFOBT) which can detect small amounts of blood in bowel movements. The test involves placing a small sample of toilet water or stool on the kit sample area and sending to a laboratory for evaluation.

According to research by Cole et al (2013), due to the NBCSP several cancers were being detected at an earlier stage which would reduce the mortality rate showing evidence the screening program is working and beneficial. Anderson and Shaw (2014) reviewed several technologies to detect polyps and cancers which include the following below which have ranges in effectiveness in detecting polyps as shown below

Faecal DNA tests to find cancer cells (51.6%)
CT Colonography to see polyps (90%)
Colon Capsule Endoscopy to see polyps (69%)
Faecal Immunochemical Test to detect blood in stool (79%)

Breast Cancer
The Statistics (Cancer Council, 2015e)
The Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Cancer Australia [AIHW], (2012) suggest a combination of earlier diagnosis associated with screening and advances in treatments are improving the survival rates for breast cancer each year.

No other technology has been proven as a screening test to reduce deaths from breast cancer.

Breast screening involves mammography (taking X-ray pictures of the breast) performed radiographers.(Department of Health for the Australian Government [DoH], 2015)


Watch this video about having a mammogram from Breast Screen Australia
Breast Screen Australia recommends becoming breast aware as opposed to examining your breasts every month (Department of Health for the Australian Government [DoH], 2015).
Being breast aware means knowing what is normal for your breasts and which changes to look out for, improving the likelihood of noticing anything unusual more quickly.
Generally the sooner breast cancer is diagnosed and treated, the better the prognosis (Pennery, Speechley, & Rosenfield, 2009).

A new lump or lumpiness in your breasts, especially if it is in only one breast
Changes to the size or shape of your breast or nipple
A discharge from your nipple without squeezing
New redness, dimpling or puckered skin on the breast
Pain that does not go away
The Department of Health for the Australian Government [DoH] (2015) suggest things you should look out for include
(National Breast Cancer Foundation, 2012)
you should check your breasts...
(BreastScreen Victoria, 2012)
Ongoing studies are looking at lifestyle factors such as exercise, weight gain or loss, diet and other habits that influence breast cancer risk (Cancer Council, 2015b).

Has been touted as the way of the future (Blumenschein, 2014), as a way to take advantage of gene changes in cells that cause cancer.

A slightly radioactive tracer is injected into a vein, attaching to breast cancer cells and is detected by a special camera. This technique is still being studied to see if it will be useful in finding breast cancers. Some radiologists believe it may helpful in looking at suspicious areas found by regular mammograms, almost as accurate as more expensive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans (American Cancer Society, 2015).

Molecular breast imaging (Scintimammography)
Targeted molecular therapy
Breast cancer is a disease in which abnormal cells in the breast tissues multiply and form an invasive (or malignant) tumour (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Cancer Australia (2012).

The tumours may damage and invade the surrounding tissue and spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic or vascular systems.

If the spread of breast tumours are not treated or controlled, they can result in death. Tumours that are non life-threatening are called benign tumours (Australian Institute of Health & Welfare & Cancer Australia, 2012).


Lung Cancer
The video below from Bowel Cancer Australia (2011) gives a good overview of the causes, symptoms and treatment available for bowel cancer
This presentation aims to give insight into each of these cancers including screening techniques, treatments and recent advances in order to provide general knowledge of the above mentioned cancers
The stages of breast cancer as supported by Blumenshein (2014).
Lung Cancer
The Statistics (Cancer Council, 2015f)
Writers Note:

All sources provided in this presentation have been selected based on the criteria outlined by Metzger (2007), and take into account the list of ways to find credible sources. Sources have been chosen from well known organisations in the field of cancer and any studies provided are based on peer reviewed, or academically endorsed information. All statistics are from recent sources that reference their source material.
The following criteria has been used for all sources selected
Author and professional organisation credibility and credentials. Must be from an medically endorsed orgainisation.
Date of publication (Journals and statistics are within last 5 years)
External links that the source provides, and any comments provided
Peer reviewed material
No bias or conflicts of interest
References for data or statistics given in source and within last 5 years
Any videos provided are listed on cancer council endorsed sites and are published by credible organisations in this field.

APA referencing style has been used throughout

(John Hopkins Medical Corolectal Cancer, 2014)
(Mesothelioma Stages, 2014)
Small Cell Lung Cancer – SCLC
Develops as malignant tumours in the tissue of the lungs.
In Australia it rates as the 5th most diagnosed cancer.
Predominantly diagnosed at ages 65 to 79. There are two main types of lung cancer:
Non Small Cell Lung Cancer - NSCLC
Squamous cell carcinoma
Large cell carcinoma

Small cell carcinoma
Mixed small cell / large cell carcinoma
(Cancer Council, 2015c)

Mesothelioma or Lung Cancer?

Mesothelioma is a condition that affects the plural membranes around lungs
This occurs in the lining of the abdomen or around the heart which is not the same as lung cancer, and is always caused by exposure to asbestos (Cancer Council, 2015c).

(Community Connect to Research, 2012)
New dry cough or change in a chronic cough
Chest pain or breathlessness
Persistent illness of pneumonia or bronchitis
Coughing or spitting up blood
Other indicators could be:
Fatigue, weight loss, hoarseness, wheezing, difficulty swallowing, abdominal or joint pain.
(Cancer Council, 2015c)

screening and
risk factors
Unlike other cancers there are no current screening Programs in Australia for early detection of Lung Cancer. Research has been undertaken into the cost effectiveness for potential of future screening but points to the cessation of smoking to be the most significant factor in the reduction of Lung Cancer. (Marshall & Fong, 2013)

Cancer Council Australia recommend healthy lifestyle choices, highlighting

quitting smoking,
reducing exposure to toxic elements such as nickel, chrome or coal gas and limiting exposure to radiation and diesel fumes

To reduce risk of Lung Cancer, the Cancer Council (2015c) advise annual check ups which will assist your GP in observing any changes to your health and following up on symptoms of Lung Cancer . The quit smoking campaigns have had the greatest impact upon the reduction of lung cancers diagnosed.
Treatment and Recent Advances
Tests to diagnose lung cancer:
A Chest X ray detects tumours one centimetre or larger.
A CT scan uses x-ray beams, it takes three dimensional images, can detect smaller tumours and enlarged lymph nodes. This may include injection with iodine for a clearer picture.
Bronchoscopy – (biopsy) allows the Doctor to view the bronchi and take a small sample of lung tissue.
PET (position emission tomography) used for diagnosis when biopsy is not possible or inconclusive.
Sputum Cytology is the examination of phlegm or mucus.

If cancer is present, recommended treatment may be surgery for partial removal of the tumour affected lung, radiotherapy and chemotherapy for the shrinkage of tumours. (National Health and Medical Research Council, 2004)

Future advances are hoped for detection methods in both breath and blood with samples and experimentation under current research (Marshall & Fong, 2013). Easier screening options are under constant discussion for future consideration.
(Cancer Council, 2015g)
Cancer is affecting the lives of Australians each day and through the medical research and constant advances over 66% of people diagnosed with cancer in Australia are still alive five years after diagnosis (Cancer Council, 2015). The survival rate for many common cancers has increased by 30 per cent in the past two decades (Cancer Council, 2015), which can be largely attributed to the ongoing awareness and information of risk factors and things to avoid, becoming available to the wider public. Being aware of screening tests available, ensures Australians can continue to be educated in how to deal with this silent killer.

To seek further information or ask any questions you may have for yourself or those you care for, contact the Cancer Council using the details below.


(Ccondayan, 2009)
(Salix, 2015)
American Cancer Society. (2015).
What’s new in breast cancer research and treatment
. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org/cancer/breastcancer/detailedguide/breast-cancer-new-research# 

Anderson, J. & Shaw, R. (2014). Update on Colon Cancer Screening: Recent Advances and Observations in Colorectal Cancer Screening.
Current Gastroenterology Reports
, 16(9), 1-8. doi: 10.1007/s11894-014-0403-3

Australian Government. (2015).
Cancer Australia
. Retrieved from http://canceraustralia.gov.au/

Australian Government Department of Health. (2015).
National bowel cancer screening program
. Retrieved from http://www.cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/about-the-program-1

Australian Institute of Health and Welfare & Cancer Australia [AIHW] (2012).
Breast cancer in Australia: an overview
. Cancer series no. 71. Cat. no. CAN 67. Canberra: AIHW.

Blumenschein, G. R. (2014). Chapter 6 - Concluding Thoughts — Where Do We Stand in the Quest for the Cure?, In Quest for the Cure. edited by George R. Blumenschein, Academic Press, San Diego, Pages 79-81, ISBN 9780124201538, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-420153-8.00016-3.

Bowel Cancer Australia. (2015a).
What is bowel cancer?
Retrieved from https://www.bowelcanceraustralia.org/understanding-bowel-cancer

Bowel Cancer Australia. (2011).
Colon Cancer
. [Video File] Retrieved from http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nmxz9VCDUq0

BreastScreenVictoria. (2012).
Having a Mammogram
[Video file]. Retrieved from http//www.youtube.com/watch?v=G5zK4MHhF_g

Cancer Council. (2015a).
Bowel Cancer
. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/types-of-cancer/bowel-cancer/

Cancer Council. (2015b).
Breast Cancer
. Retrieved from http://www.cancer.org.au/about-cancer/types-of-cancer/breast-cancer.html

Cancer Council. (2015c).
Lung Cancer (C33-C34)
. Retrieved from http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/research/reports-and-publications/state-of-cancer-control-in-australia-1987-2007/results-by-cancer-type/lung-cancer-c33-34/

Chan, David (2009).
Breast Cancer: Real Questions, Real Answers
. Retrieved from http://www.eblib.com

Cole, S. R., Tucker, G. R., Osborne, J. M., Byrne, S. E., Bampton, P. A., Fraser, R. J. L., & Young, G. P. (2013). Shift to earlier stage at diagnosis as a consequence of the National Bowel Cancer Screening Program.
Medical Journal of Australia
, 198(6), 327-330. doi: 10.5694/mja12.11357

Department of Health for the Australian Government [DoH]. (2015).
Breast Screen Australia
, retrieved from http://cancerscreening.gov.au/internet/screening/publishing.nsf/Content/breastscreen-n-you-html

Lung Cancer Bronchoscopy (2014) retrieved from http://youtube/aNaygrZruDk

Marshall, H.M & Fong K.M. (2013).
Screening For Lung Cancer
. Cancer Forum 37(2) Retrieved from http://www.cancercouncil.org

Metzger, M.J. (2007). Making sense of credibility on the web: Models for evaluating online information and recommendations for future research. 
Journal Of The American Society For Information Science & Technology
, 58(13), 2078-2091.

National Comprehensive Cancer Network [NCCN] (2012). Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology,
Journal of the National Comprehensive Cancer Network
, JNCCN;10(2):240–265

National Health and Medical Research Council [NHMR] (2004).
Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention, Diagnosis and Management of Lung Cancer
. ISBN Print: 1 86496 312 3 pp.1-315 retrieved from http://www.nhmrc.gov.au/publications

Pennery, E., Speechley, V., & Rosenfield, M. (2009). Breast Cancer. London: Class Pub.

AIGA. (2008). No Smoking sign [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.aiga.org/content.cfm/symbol-signs

Cancer Council. (2015d).

Bowel Cancer [Image]. Retrieved, from http://hope.cancercouncil.com.au/?gclid=CNu8wuLon8UCFUaXvQodQx0AQw

Cancer Council. (2015e). Breast Cancer [Image]. Retrieved from http://hope.cancercouncil.com.au/?gclid=CNu8wuLon8UCFUaXvQodQx0AQw

Cancer Council. (2015f). Lung Cancer [Image]. Retrieved from http://hope.cancercouncil.com.au/?gclid=CNu8wuLon8UCFUaXvQodQx0AQw

Cancer Council. (2015g). Modifiable risk factors [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.cancercouncil.com.au/research/reports-and-publications/state-of-cancer-control-in-australia-1987-2007/results-by-cancer-type/lung-cancer-c33-34/

Mesothelioma Stages. (2014). Stages of Breast Cancer [Image]. Retrieved from http://breastcancerinfoblog.com/breast-cancer-diagram-stages/

John Hopkins Medical Colorectal Cancer. (2014). From Polyps to Cancer. [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.hopkinscoloncancercenter.org/CMS/CMS_Page.aspx?CurrentUDV=59&CMS_Page_ID=0B34E9BE-5DE6-4CB4-B387-4158CC924084

Community Connect to Research. (2012). Small vs Non small cancer cells [Image]. Lung Cancer Overview. Retrieved from http://www.connecttoresearch.org/publications/47

National Breast Cancer Foundation. (2012). How should a breast self exam be performed? [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.nationalbreastcancer.org/breast-self-exam

Ccondayan. (2009). E.coli May Promote Bowel Cancer. [Image]. Retrieved from http://www.microbeworld.org/component/jlibrary/?view=article&id=461

Salix. (2015). Abnormal polyps and lesions could become cancerous [Image]. Retrieved from http://moviprep.salix.com/about-colon-cancer

page 2
page 1
(AIGA, 2008)
Breast screening is recommended for women once they turn 50, or have been recommended by their doctor. Screening should then be repeated every 2 years. Research shows that regular screening has the greatest benefit for women within this age group (Cancer Council, 2015b).
Uncontrollable multiplication of cells lining the colon that turns into a large growth (polyps) which grows rapidly in size eventually breaks through the bowel lining and enters the blood stream
Blood in stool
Change in bowel habits
Abdominal pain
Unintended weight loss
Depending on the severity of the cancer, doctors may recommend and of the following
Surgery to remove all damaged parts of the bowel
Surgery to remove polyps
(Bowel Cancer Australia, 2011)
Bowel Cancer Australia (2015) illustrates how polyps start small and may increase in size becoming cancerous. Not all polyps are cancerous, however if they become large enough they can puncture the lining of the bowel and enter the blood stream. Doctors are particularly worried about these types of polyps and recommend their removal prior to this occurring.

Bowel Cancer
If you are displaying any of these symptoms and are concerned you can get further information from

Bowel Cancer Australia Helpline: 1800 555 494

Breast Cancer Betwork Australia: 1800 500 258

Lung Foundation Australia: 1800 654 301



A broncoscopy is a current technology for exploring the oesophagus and lung passages of patients. Doctors use this technology for diagnostic purposes to find blockages, take biopsey and determine if tumours are present. (Cancer Council 2015c)
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