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Conjoined twins

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Franziska Sommerfeld

on 19 June 2017

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Transcript of Conjoined twins

Conjoined twins
= Siamese twins
(Chang and Eng Bunker)
Types of conjoined twins
How conjoined twins are formed
Identical twins:
a fertilized egg divides into two halves
are genetically identical and of the same sex
Conjoined twins:
but during the split, the embryo does not separate completely

the steam cells fuse together after separation
75% are female
are formed exactly like identical twins,
Pygopagus -
back-to-back, joined at the rump (19%)
Ischiopagus -
joined sacrum to sacrum (6%)
Dicephalus -
one body with two separate heads
Diprosopus -
single body and head, but bearing two faces
Craniopagus -
Cephalopagus / Syncephalus -
Dipygus -
one upper body with two lower bodies
connected in the facial region (2%)
Thoracopagus -
Omphalopagus -
Rachipagus -
joined by aportion of the skull
Xiphopagus -
joined at the chest, may share a heart or have some cardiac connection (40%)
joined at the chest (33%)
back-to-back, joined along the spine above the sacrum
Parasitic twinning -
conjoined twin is much smaller and perhaps not as fully formed or developed as the larger twin
Fetus in fetu -
rare form of parasitic twinning
twin inside the body of a host twin
joined at a small section of the abdomen, may share a liver
the first successful separation
- 1689 by Johannes Fatio
- Xiphopagus twins

separation depends on the type of connection
TO – Thoracopagus or Omphalopagus,
C – Cephalopagus or Cephalothoracopagus,
I – Ischiopagus,
DC – Dicephalus,
DPr – Diprosopus,
Cr – Craniopagus,
P – Pygopagus,
R – Rachipagus,
DP – Dipygus
Abigail and Brittany Hensel
were born in 1990 (currently 22)
grew up in Minnesota, USA
Dicephalus twins
Thanks for your attention!
Full transcript