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Diseases of WWI
Transcript of Diseases of WWI
• caused by a specific serotype of the bacterium Salmonella typhi
• bacterium usually enters the body through the mouth by the ingestion of contaminated food or water
• it first enters into the bloodstream within 24 to 72 hours
• an average 10–14-day incubation period Symptoms:
loss of appetite
Symptoms usually intensify as disease carries on. The Outcome
• April 1917, the American Red Cross Nursing Service, under the direction of Jane Delano
• Sixty-three thousand soldiers and sailors died from disease Cholera Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease that can kill within hours if left untreated.
Provision of safe water and sanitation is critical in reducing the impact of cholera and other waterborne diseases.
-caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae
In the trenches, where cholera is widespread, grains such as rice and millet that are contaminated after cooking and allowed to remain at room temperature for several hours become a medium for the growth of cholera bacteria.
Because more than a million cholera bacteria — approximately the amount you'd find in a glass of contaminated water — are needed to cause illness, cholera usually isn't transmitted through casual person-to-person contact. Symptoms
Cholera is an extremely virulent disease. It affects both children and adults and can kill within hours.
Diarrhea. Cholera-related diarrhea comes on suddenly and may quickly cause dangerous fluid loss — as much as a quart (.95 liters) an hour. Diarrhea due to cholera often has a pale, milky appearance that resembles water in which rice has been rinsed (rice-water stool).
Nausea and vomiting. Occurring in both the early and later stages of cholera, vomiting may persist for hours at a time.
Dehydration. Dehydration can develop within hours after the onset of cholera symptoms. Depending on how many body fluids have been lost, dehydration can range from mild to severe. A loss of 10 percent or more of total body weight indicates severe dehydration.
Signs and symptoms of cholera dehydration include irritability, lethargy, sunken eyes, a dry mouth, extreme thirst, dry and shriveled skin that's slow to bounce back when pinched into a fold, little or no urine output, low blood pressure, and an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).
Muscle cramps. These result from the rapid loss of salts such as sodium, chloride and potassium.
Shock. This is one of the most serious complications of dehydration. It occurs when low blood volume causes a drop in blood pressure and a drop in the amount of oxygen in your body. If untreated, severe hypovolemic shock can cause death in a matter of minutes. Cholera transmission is closely linked to inadequate environmental management. Typical at-risk areas include peri-urban slums, where basic infrastructure is not available, as well as camps for internally displaced people or refugees, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are not met.
The consequences of a disaster – such as disruption of water and sanitation systems, or the displacement of populations to inadequate and overcrowded camps – can increase the risk of cholera transmission should the bacteria be present or introduced. Epidemics have never arisen from dead bodies.
Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of social development. Recently, the re-emergence of cholera has been noted in parallel with the ever-increasing size of vulnerable populations living in unsanitary conditions. Treatment
Cholera is an easily treatable disease. Up to 80% of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration salts. Very severely dehydrated patients require administration of intravenous fluids. Such patients also require appropriate antibiotics to diminish the duration of diarrhoea, reduce the volume of rehydration fluids needed, and shorten the duration of V. cholerae excretion. In some lavish and only the best hospitals, these salts would be available, but they would run out of them quickly.
In order to ensure timely access to treatment, cholera treatment centres should be set up among the affected populations. With proper treatment, the case fatality rate should remain below 1%. But in the trenches there were close quarters and no escape from the disease. Connection to A Farewell to Arms: In the beggining of the book, Hemingway stuns by the poignant yet passive mentioning of the fact that,"At the start of the winter came the permanent rain and with the rain came the cholera. But it was checked and in the end only seven thousand died of it in the army." Having done my research, this simple cause and effect is easily true. The soldiers lived in a terribly unsanitary envoronment, namely, the trenches. The bacteria was popular among soldiers, with poor sanitation procedures and corps lying around, not to mention the source of the disease, contaminated food. Citations: http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/index.html
http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/10/24/haiti.cholera/index.html Persistent fever develops and gradually rises, reaching a peak of 103 to 104 degrees F.Second week of fever, a rash of small, rose-coloured spots appears on the trunk, lasts four or five days, and then fades away. Causes of Typhoid Fever:
pollution of public water supplies
no proper sewage treatment
introduced mainly in military forces such as World War 1. Possible treatments:
vaccines to prevent the disease Connection to A Farewell to Arms Many of the deaths in World War 1 were caused by disease. On page 12 it says,"...we have nothing butfrostbites, chilbains, jaundice, gonorrhea,
There are a few real wounded. This relates to FTA because it shows the prevalence of diseases during WW1. Typhoid Fever was one of the major killers during this time of war. Citations "typhoid fever." Encyclopedia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/611776/typhoid-fever>. "Medical Research and Technology." International Military and Defense Encyclopedia. Ed. Trevor N. Dupuy. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 1993.Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.Document URLhttp://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=UHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&source=&sortBy=&displayGroups=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CBT2342200447&userGroupName=rock34534&jsid=9baad6628561a692371c748c18281cf6 "Medicine in World War I." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 2: 1910-1919. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.