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Diseases of WWI

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Xavier Rivera

on 15 November 2012

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Transcript of Diseases of WWI

The Diseases of World War I How the disease was contracted: Dysentery spread rapidly during World War 1 due to the fact that they lived in close living quarters. It could also be spread through contaminated water and food (if it had been contaminated by the feces of a human carrier of the infective organism.) Issues with remaining sanitary during the war were just another problem that helped to spread dysentery among the soldiers. Dysentery Dysentery played a major role in World War 1. Dysentery is a bacterial/viral infection. Symptoms: Dysentery is an infectious disease. The intestines of the infected soldier would be inflamed. The soldiers would experience severe abdominal pain, diarrhea, and bloody stool. After an incubation period of about one to six days, the disease causes an abrupt onset with fever. Vomiting could occur and they would soon face dehydration from lack of fluids. Dysentery put them in a horrible state. Treatment procedures: Treatments for dysentery include the use of antibiotics, fluids, and in severe cases blood transfusions. Statistics of disease: Many of the soldiers were infected with this disease due to the fact of how easily it could be spread in the conditions of the war. Most were defeated by dysentery, probably more than combat. Dysentery negatively impacted World War 1 greatly. How it relates to Farewell To Arms: It does not specifically relate to the dysentery however it relates to how disease affected the soldiers (cholera killed over 7000 soldiers as Ernest Hemingway stated in the beginning of book 1). On Ernest Hemmingway’s first visit to the Kenya safari in 1933, he was sick with dysentery, this relates to his life rather the book, but nevertheless it played a role in the author’s life. General Impacts G Statistics: The Influenza Epidemic killed about 20-100 million people during the war. This disease had a death rate of 7.2%. This disease killed more people during WWI than all other diseases combined. Most people who died from this disease contracted it in a rural demographic. influenza Treatments G Disappearances: The influenza epidemic came and went multiple times. In 1920, the disease never returned. One of the worst things about this epidemic was that it was unpredictable and spontaneous. The second time the disease came back, it had evolved to target a wider range of people. The treatments for the disease were limited and were not very successful. The Influenza did not kill everyone who contracted it, but if left them unable to fight for a substantial amount of time. Not only did this make it hard to fight, but due to the unsanitary environment, the disease spread alarmingly quickly. The disease impacted young people the most. The disease affected people 20-40 years of age. Bodily effect of Influenza: The symptoms begin with flushing, chills, and fever. As the disease progresses, the person with the influenza starts to get worse symptoms, such as coughing up blood. It will be increasingly difficult for the person to breath, and they could be dead in a matter of hours. Even if the person survives, there is a chance of developing a superimposed bacterial phenomena that will kill in a matter of days. The Epidemic did lots of damage, but specifically to the offensives in the war. This epidemic was one of the main factors for the loss of the "hundred" day offensive, leaving 500,000 soldiers unable to fight. It also helped stop Erich's of July, 1918 trench fever typhoid fever What the illness looked like What the illness looked like What the disease looked like How they got it… a rickettsia organism related to the cause of typhus and Rocky Mountain spotted fever. It is transmitted when the louse bites a carrier and defecates on the skin of another host. When the host would scratch the skin it would break and bacteria would enter the blood stream and that’s when the bad things start to happen Treatments… Most people recover within 2 months but for 5% of the cases the disease becomes chronic. For most people they were treated by a medicine called chlortetracycline for permanent relief of symptoms, but they still carry the bacteria rickettsia and remain infectious to lice Symptoms… it causes fever, rash, bone and joint pain, skin lesions on chest and back. There might be a time of fever and it would go away and it would come back time to time. Death Rate… About 800,000 soldiers would be infected and "During 1917 ... an army of 1,000,000 would lose in a year at least 45,000 casualties from trench fever. Of these casualties, at least 80% would lose on an average, at least three months off duty.” stated Colonel Butler. What is Typhoid Fever?

• caused by a specific serotype of the bacterium Salmonella typhi

• bacterium usually enters the body through the mouth by the ingestion of contaminated food or water

• it first enters into the bloodstream within 24 to 72 hours

• an average 10–14-day incubation period Symptoms:
headache
generalized aching
fever
loss of appetite
nosebleeds
cough
diarrhea
constipation
Symptoms usually intensify as disease carries on. The Outcome
• April 1917, the American Red Cross Nursing Service, under the direction of Jane Delano
• Sixty-three thousand soldiers and sailors died from disease Cholera Cholera is an acute diarrhoeal disease that can kill within hours if left untreated.
Provision of safe water and sanitation is critical in reducing the impact of cholera and other waterborne diseases.
-caused by ingestion of food or water contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholerae

In the trenches, where cholera is widespread, grains such as rice and millet that are contaminated after cooking and allowed to remain at room temperature for several hours become a medium for the growth of cholera bacteria.

Because more than a million cholera bacteria — approximately the amount you'd find in a glass of contaminated water — are needed to cause illness, cholera usually isn't transmitted through casual person-to-person contact. Symptoms

Cholera is an extremely virulent disease. It affects both children and adults and can kill within hours.

Diarrhea. Cholera-related diarrhea comes on suddenly and may quickly cause dangerous fluid loss — as much as a quart (.95 liters) an hour. Diarrhea due to cholera often has a pale, milky appearance that resembles water in which rice has been rinsed (rice-water stool).
Nausea and vomiting. Occurring in both the early and later stages of cholera, vomiting may persist for hours at a time.
Dehydration. Dehydration can develop within hours after the onset of cholera symptoms. Depending on how many body fluids have been lost, dehydration can range from mild to severe. A loss of 10 percent or more of total body weight indicates severe dehydration.

Signs and symptoms of cholera dehydration include irritability, lethargy, sunken eyes, a dry mouth, extreme thirst, dry and shriveled skin that's slow to bounce back when pinched into a fold, little or no urine output, low blood pressure, and an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).

Muscle cramps. These result from the rapid loss of salts such as sodium, chloride and potassium.

Shock. This is one of the most serious complications of dehydration. It occurs when low blood volume causes a drop in blood pressure and a drop in the amount of oxygen in your body. If untreated, severe hypovolemic shock can cause death in a matter of minutes. Cholera transmission is closely linked to inadequate environmental management. Typical at-risk areas include peri-urban slums, where basic infrastructure is not available, as well as camps for internally displaced people or refugees, where minimum requirements of clean water and sanitation are not met.

The consequences of a disaster – such as disruption of water and sanitation systems, or the displacement of populations to inadequate and overcrowded camps – can increase the risk of cholera transmission should the bacteria be present or introduced. Epidemics have never arisen from dead bodies.

Cholera remains a global threat to public health and a key indicator of lack of social development. Recently, the re-emergence of cholera has been noted in parallel with the ever-increasing size of vulnerable populations living in unsanitary conditions. Treatment

Cholera is an easily treatable disease. Up to 80% of people can be treated successfully through prompt administration of oral rehydration salts. Very severely dehydrated patients require administration of intravenous fluids. Such patients also require appropriate antibiotics to diminish the duration of diarrhoea, reduce the volume of rehydration fluids needed, and shorten the duration of V. cholerae excretion. In some lavish and only the best hospitals, these salts would be available, but they would run out of them quickly.

In order to ensure timely access to treatment, cholera treatment centres should be set up among the affected populations. With proper treatment, the case fatality rate should remain below 1%. But in the trenches there were close quarters and no escape from the disease. Connection to A Farewell to Arms: In the beggining of the book, Hemingway stuns by the poignant yet passive mentioning of the fact that,"At the start of the winter came the permanent rain and with the rain came the cholera. But it was checked and in the end only seven thousand died of it in the army." Having done my research, this simple cause and effect is easily true. The soldiers lived in a terribly unsanitary envoronment, namely, the trenches. The bacteria was popular among soldiers, with poor sanitation procedures and corps lying around, not to mention the source of the disease, contaminated food. Citations: http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/index.html
http://www.who.int/topics/cholera/en/
http://www.cdc.gov/cholera/general/
http://lv-staff.francisparker.org/globalissues/lifecholera.htm
http://www.medicalook.com/Infectious_diseases/Cholera.html
http://topworldofhealth.blogspot.com/2011/12/cholera-and-impetigo-treatment.html
http://almostadoctor.co.uk/content/Systems/Infectious-Disease/cholera
http://rehydrate.org/dd/su52.htm
http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/worldnews/africaandindianocean/zimbabwe/3536824/Zimbabwes-cholera-epidemic-hits-10000.html
http://www.wpclipart.com/medical/medical_problems/Cholera_bacteria.png.html
http://www.cnn.com/2010/WORLD/americas/10/24/haiti.cholera/index.html Persistent fever develops and gradually rises, reaching a peak of 103 to 104 degrees F.Second week of fever, a rash of small, rose-coloured spots appears on the trunk, lasts four or five days, and then fades away. Causes of Typhoid Fever:
pollution of public water supplies
no proper sewage treatment
introduced mainly in military forces such as World War 1. Possible treatments:
antibiotics
vaccines to prevent the disease Connection to A Farewell to Arms Many of the deaths in World War 1 were caused by disease. On page 12 it says,"...we have nothing butfrostbites, chilbains, jaundice, gonorrhea,
self-inflicted wounds,pneumonia...
There are a few real wounded. This relates to FTA because it shows the prevalence of diseases during WW1. Typhoid Fever was one of the major killers during this time of war. Citations "typhoid fever." Encyclopedia
Britannica. Encyclopædia Britannica Online Academic Edition. Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 2012. Web. 14 Nov. 2012. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/611776/typhoid-fever>. "Medical Research and Technology." International Military and Defense Encyclopedia. Ed. Trevor N. Dupuy. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 1993.Gale U.S. History In Context. Web. 14 Nov. 2012.Document URLhttp://ic.galegroup.com/ic/uhic/ReferenceDetailsPage/ReferenceDetailsWindow?failOverType=&query=&prodId=UHIC&windowstate=normal&contentModules=&mode=view&displayGroupName=Reference&limiter=&currPage=&disableHighlighting=false&source=&sortBy=&displayGroups=&search_within_results=&action=e&catId=&activityType=&scanId=&documentId=GALE%7CBT2342200447&userGroupName=rock34534&jsid=9baad6628561a692371c748c18281cf6 "Medicine in World War I." American Decades. Ed. Judith S. Baughman, et al. Vol. 2: 1910-1919. Detroit: Gale, 2001. Gale Virtual Reference Library. Web. 12 Nov. 2012.
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