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Cultural Influences on Pregnancy
Transcript of Cultural Influences on Pregnancy
- Males (sons) are preferred:
*Responsible for care of the parents b/c females marry and leave family. Chinese Culture Pregnant women must: Birth Practices and Beliefs Woman is in state of Yin after birth.
Blood loss=Cold Postpartum Practices: Zuo yue zi
(Yin and Yang balance is key) Strong Governmental Influences Government passed One Child Policy Laws in 1979.
Causes imbalance between males and females
118.5 boys to 100 girls Healthcare provided to woman:
Approval= little to no cost
Unapproved= $$$ Encourages marriage later in life:
Males >22 yoa
Females >20 yoa Ultrasounds were banned from determining sex of baby! "Women's Business" Only women in delivery room
Only discuss pregnancy with female relatives
No medications given Shameful to scream or cry in pain=decreased energy for pushing Stay indoors for 1 month Hispanic: Guatemalan Experiences, physical and spiritual, affect baby
Fathers believe should have as many children as possible
Women often disagree b/c of concern for food, clothes, room in home, etc.
Many children shows economic security
Children care for elderly parents Use midwives (comadrones) and give birth at home surrounded by family and friends
Midwives may give herbal teas or give them cooking oil to drink to “soften the pain.” NO pain meds for vaginal birth!
If have complications will go to hospital for C-Section where epidural and one dose of Tylenol is given Post-Op Birth Process Take care of themselves and their child within 12 hours after birth. Do not want ANY help from midwife or HC professionals.
All women Breastfeed:
Others wait until 3rd postpartum day b/c believe colostrum is “bad”
Mothers instructed to
Eat chicken soup, bananas, and maize gruel to help them heal
Drink herbal teas with oregano or white honey to help with pain
Sitz or herbal baths and wear abdominal bindings for few weeks Postpartum Avoid cold Yin foods such as:
Fruits and vegetables
Consume Yang foods such as:
Wine, food cooked with ginger or wine
Beef, chicken, eggs
Spicy foods Minimal movement
No sexual contact
Wash clothes separate from family’s
No showers, brushing teeth, or washing hair
No drafts of cold
No reading or watching TV Turkish Culture Husbands make ALL decisions:
Age at which women have children, often immediately after marriage
Number of children
Usually at least 10 years older than wife
Often relatives of the wife. Women’s Job= Marriage and Motherhood only
Having sons and wealth show power
Will continue to have children until husband is satisfied with number of sons 1. Support elderly parents
2. Produce Sons If unable to have children, deemed unfruitful and husband may practice polygamy Give birth at home with midwives because women are embarrassed by body changes
(Only see Dr. in severe emergency) Will only discuss with mother-in-law
Results in misinformation Work hard=son
Laziness= daughter Placenta buried to determine destiny of baby Return to daily work load immediately if have daughter.
If have son, mother is allowed to rest and recover for a few days. African Cultures PRENATAL BELIEFS:
A pregnant woman is not supposed to hold her hands up over her head. It is believed she will strangle the baby.
A pregnant woman should not cross her legs when sitting. This will cause hemorrhoids.
A pregnant woman should indulge her food cravings or the baby will have unpleasant physical or personality traits that match the characteristics of the food. LABOR & DELIVERY
During labor a woman puts a knife under the bed or pillow to "cut" the pain.
Midwives, referred to as Grannies, were traditionally charged with the prenatal, birthing, and postpartum care.
It is OK to be very vocal during childbirth. Postpartum
Babies were not named until it was known if they would survive. It was believed that spirits of the dead could not see and therefore harm a child who did not have a name.
The placenta has a spirit of its own and must be secretly buried where it will never be disturbed and negatively affect the child.
A small portion of the umbilical cord is wrapped in paper and put away to ensure the newborn will not get colic.
Talismans are used for protection and to connect the child to ancestral powers and the spirits of nature.
New mothers are to rest and be cared for in the initial four to eight weeks after birth, assisted by their family and the community.
Henna body art is used during this postpartum period. New mother rest while intricate, time-consuming lace patterns are painted and allowed to dry. After this, the mother should perform no housework. The henna beautification lifts the new mother's spirits, wards off depression, and signifies the mother's new and higher social status. San Bushmen Indigenous Traditions Most women will give birth alone in a squatting position, some few hundred metres from their settlement, and this is regarded as ideal, although mothers giving birth for the first time may have a helper at hand.
how she feels and thinks during the pregnancy will affect the labour and birth of the new baby.
pregnant woman is expected to continue with her normal duties such as gathering food, cleaning, caring for other children and should not complain.
Giving birth alone is a tremendous experience for the first time mother among the San Bushmen, and many young girls are encouraged to watch another woman giving birth so that they learn to face their fears.
It appears that San women bite the cord with their teeth and bury the placenta after giving birth, before walking back to the settlement. This is her duty, to return the placenta, which is no longer needed, to mother earth. It also connects the infant to the territory a particular group of Bushmen clan occupy Traditionally attended by an older woman such as a grandmother or a traditional birth attendant.
After a birth, the mother is secluded in her hut with the baby until she stops bleeding and burial of the placenta and cord has great importance.
When the cord falls off, it is understood that the newborn now not only belongs to the mother, but to the whole community.
Traditionally an animal is slaughtered as a sacrifice and the skin of the animal is given to the new infant as a protective clothing or sleeping mat.
The burial spot of the placenta seals the attachment of a person to their ancestral land and it is a place to which many will return as adults. This burial place of the placenta is a place to connect with their ancestors in times of trouble, to dream and eventually to die.
All African cultures believe that a new baby has come from the spirit world bearing gifts and talents. The naming ceremony is therefore of vital importance, connecting a baby to the ancestors who have imparted these talents and bonding the newborn to the community. Sources
Kartchner and Callister 2003 R. Kartchner, L.C. Callister Giving birth The voices of Chinese women Journal of Holistic Nursing, 21 (2) (2003), pp. 100–116
Callister and Vega 1998 L.C. Callister, R. Vega Giving birth Guatemalan women’s voices Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing, 27 (3) (1998), pp. 289–295
Boyacioglu, A., & Türkmen, A. (2008). Social and cultural dimensions of pregnancy and childbirth in eastern Turkey. Culture, Health & Sexuality, 10(3), 277-285
African American Traditional Beliefs on Birthing
Birth in South Africa: Indigenous Traditions Jan 27th, 2011 by Marianne Littlejohn Why is this important? 60% of the population increase in the United States between 1994 and 2050 will be immigrants
Lead to increase in population diversity
Modify nursing interventions to fit within cultural norms of the patient Stay positive and happy :)
Eat nutritious foods
Early bedtime African Indigenous Traditions:Bantu The placenta is considered the baby’s companion and it is given due accord when buried. In many regions the placenta is buried in the patio of the house for a boy and near where the tortillas are made for girls. Throw the cord into a school yard if they want their child to be well-educated
Bury it in the courtyard of a mosque if they want their child to be devout later in life.
Turkish culture also considers the placenta the baby’s friend and often times it will be wrapped in a clean cloth and buried. Placenta disposed of or made into pills for mother to consume. USA Family event
Father usually in birthing process
Frequent prenatal visits
Hospitals most common most use medications for pain
Some with midwives
Birth Time of bonding and relaxation
Most have at least 12 weeks off of work to recover
Placenta is often disposed of at hospital
75 % of U.S. babies start out breastfeeding
CDC says, only 13% are exclusively breastfeed