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Transcript of Imperialism
which it has not yet penetrated, to pierce the darkness
which hangs over entire peoples, is, I dare say,
a crusade worthy of this century of progress. “
-King Leopold 2nd
Colonized: “The blacks had slept long, perhaps too long. But beware! Those who have slept long and soundly, when once they wake up, will not easily fall back to sleep again.”
-Blaise Daigne * Other Europeans countries took over parts of Africa. For example, Italy took over parts of north and east Africa. Germany took over parts of central Africa. Portugal took parts of south Africa. The Spanish took over few parts of west Africa. The Map of Africa *Ethiopia and Liberia were the only countries in Africa that were not controlled by European countries. Exploration
Political: Colonial competition -Exploration - Began in 1805/1806 when Scotsman Mungo Park explored the Niger River.
-This sparked interest, and other explorers started to arrive.
- Frenchman Rene Caille crossed the Sahara. Political: Colonial Competition aka. Scramble For Africa -Europeans governments were very competitive politically, and believed that a country's greatness could be measured by how big their empire was, thus wanting to expand it, which was made possible by colonization.
-1879 competition for territory began.
-Henry Stanley, a reporter, claimed a majority of the Congo River Valley for King Leopold 2 of Belgium.
-Leopold claimed this would abolish slave trade, but it didn't. It brought harsh conditions to the residents.
-Eventually in 1908, the Belgian government gained control of the Belgian Congo, 80 times the size of Belgium.
-France responded in 1882 by taking the northern bank of the Congo River.
-Other European countries began as well, such as Britain, Germany, Italy, Portugal, and Spain
-To prevent war, Europeans got together in Berlin in 1884 to lay down rules about colonization of Africa, yet no Africans participated. This was the Berlin Conference.
-Any country could claim land in Africa simply by sending troops to occupy locations that assured control of nearby areas. Colonial Competition (cont.) -Europeans took over North Africa, overthrowing the weaker local rulers.
-Prior to imperialism in 1830, France invaded Algeria, but other Europeans didn't really care about France's role in North Africa.
-The purpose was to build it’s power and to stop Algerian pirates who were attacking the French.
-In 1869 Frenchmen built the Suez Canal, which went across the Isthmus of Suez and linked the Mediterranean and Red Seas, which provides a shorter route to India and Australia
- British gov. invested heavily in it, and guarding it become critical to their foreign policy. Because of this, when fighting broke out in Egypt in 1882, Britain took it over and it became a protectorate (controlling foreign policy) Colonial Competition (cont.) -Britain was also interested in Sudan.
-This country was along the Nile River, and the Egyptians used the river as a water source.
-England thought that they had to control Sudan to protect the canal and Egypt, so in 1896 Britain and Egypt invaded Sudan, eventually gaining control in 1898.
-This country became a condominium, or a country ruled by two other countries at the same time. Colonial Competition (cont.) -France wanted to have a great African Empire, so they took over Tunisia and Morocco.
-In 1898, they started to invade Sudan, but England was already there. They almost went to war over the land, but eventually backed down.
-Colonization ended in 1914, with Ethiopia and Liberia being the only independent states. Even though imperialism in Africa ended, it resulted in the splitting of many African tribes, leading to genocide and civil wars which are still present today. -Europeans could hire Africans for very cheap, forcefully
-Africa had many natural resources -Europeans found in easier to shoot first and ask questions later when invading countries.
-They had strong military forces.
-They easily defeated African soldiers, though sometimes it was difficult to conquer a large empire. (ex. Samori Toure) Military Economical -European countries competed with each other economically.
-They believed colonies would bring them wealth, and used materials from these colonies. Private businesses/merchants supported colonization.
-Cash-crop plantations in Africa grew peanuts, palm oil, cocoa, and rubber.
-The continent was also rich in mineral resources.
-The Belgian Congo had a large concentration of copper and tin.
-In South Africa there were gold and diamonds, which resulted in the Boer War between the Boers and British. Exploration (cont.) -German Heinrich Barth traveled in western Africa in the 1850s.
-Scottish man David Livingstone spent 30 years as a missionary in central Africa trying to find the source of the Nile River, among other things.
-These explorers gave Europeans new information about Africa. Military (cont.)
- It was easy to take over small communities, so sometimes they didn’t even have to go to war. (ex. Gold Coast)
-Occasionally they were invited into a region to protect it.
-Example: Buganda, in which Britain supported the Christians in the civil war. They signed an agreement that gave them a position of power in Buganda. Social - Technology Europeans were technologically advanced compared to Africans.
New inventions, such as the Maxim gun, put Europeans ahead of Africans.
Transportation made things easier for them as well, such as railroads, cables, and especially steam boats.
Quinine was used to treat Europeans living in Africa with malaria, which was an advantage that the native Africans did not have. Europeans believed they were superior, due to their advancements in technology.
One of the main causes of this racism was Social Darwinism spreading. Scientist Charles Darwin theorized that only the fittest would survive and prosper, which would make them superior
This caused them to view Africans as inferior culturally, physically, and technologically. Religious Religious figures also supported imperialism.
Christian missionaries wanted to spread Christianity all over the world, including Africa.
They believed by influencing Africans with European and religious ideas, bad practices such as slave trade would stop. Background *Before imperialism, Europeans controlled only about 10% of Africa, which rose up to 90% in 1900.
*Africa was generally unknown to them, and there wasn't much interaction between the 2.
*The continent was divided into many ethnic groups, with varying culture and language.
*There were large empires controlling many different groups as well as independent villages. *One example of a larger empire was the Ottoman Empire. They started to lose land in their war against Russia which was called the Crimean War. In the war France and Britain were along side the Ottomans because they were afraid Russia would take over the lands of the Ottoman Empire.
*Before the Europeans took over Africa, the Ottoman Empire controlled some parts. They were in Hungary, Greece, around the Black Sea, south of Syria and across Egypt. ......... *The French and British both wanted to build an African empire.The French took over Algeria, Tunisia,Morocco and some of the Sahara desert. On the other hand Britain took over Egypt, Sudan, eastern Nigeria and most of southern Africa. David Livingstone Niger River Samori Toure Gold Coast Buganda Civil War Maxim Gun Sudan Citation -Modern World History
-World History: Perspectives on the Past The Effects (negative cont.) This had many negative effects on Africa such as the natives being put to work as slaves. Many of them dying due to this, were resettled, exploited, weren't taken at their free will and the whites took all of their land. Lastly people were corrupted and given evil minds, their money was taken from them, and religion was forced upon them.