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Heart Project <3

Pathology
by

Bridgett Wolf

on 17 January 2013

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Transcript of Heart Project <3

Pathology of the Cardiovascular System BY: Bridgett Wolf Blood Disorders: Sickle Cell Anemia: Heart Disorders: Vessel Disorder: Atherosclerosis: Cognitive HF: Cites: Blood disorders can effect the three main components of the blood.
Red; White; Platelets; and Plasma
Treatments and prognosis for blood diseases vary, depending on the blood condition and its severity. It is a disease passed down through families in which red blood cells form an abnormal sickle or crescent shape.
Red blood cells are normally disk shaped. Heart disease includes conditions affecting the heart.
Heart disease is the leading cause of death for men and women in the U.S. Blood vessel disease is also called peripheral vascular disease or artery disease.
It is the narrowing of the blood vessels in the abdomen, legs and
arms. Hardening of the arteries is a common disorder.
It occurs when fat, cholesterol, and other substances build up in the walls of arteries and form hard structures called plaques. Iron Deficiency Anemia Anemia is when the body does not have enough healthy blood red blood cells
When your body does not have enough iron it will make fewer red blood cells
This is the most common form of anemia Cause: You can get this when your bodies iron storage runs low: Ex- Your body does not absorb iron properly.
Iron loss do to bleeding: Ex- Heavy, long, or frequent menstrual periods.
The body may not absorb enough iron in a diet: Ex- Take too many anti acids that contain calcium.
You may not get enough iron in your diet: Ex- You're a strict vegetarian. Symptoms: If the anemia is mild there may be no symptoms.
Mild Symptoms: Grumpy, Weak, Headaches, and problems concentrating
As it worsens: Blue tint in the whites of your eyes, brittle nails, light-headed, pale color skin, shortness of breathe, sore tongue Treatment: Taking iron supplements and eating iron-rich foods are important parts of treating iron deficiency anemia.
Iron Rich Foods: Chicken, Turkey, Beans, Eggs, Fish, Meats, Peanut Butter, Soy Beans, Whole Grain Bread, Oatmeal, Raises, Spinach.
People who are unable to take iron by mouth can get it through their veins as injections. Prevention: One way to prevent it is to make sure you have enough iron in your diet.
If you know your are not getting enough than take iron supplements.
During your period you will need extra iron to make sure to increase the amount of iron in your diet or take iron supplements. Cause: It is caused by an abnormal type of hemoglobin called hemoglobin S.
Hemoglobin S changes the shape of red blood cells.
These fragile shaped cells deliver less oxygen to cells tissues.
They can also get stuck more easily in blood vessels.
Sickle Cell Anemia in inherited by both parents. Symptoms: Symptoms do not occur until after four months.
Almost all people with it have painful episodes that can last hours to days.
When it becomes severe: fatigue, paleness, rapid heart rate, shortness of breathe, yellowing of the eyes and skin.
Over time the spleen will no longer work.
Other symptoms delayed growth and joint pain. Treatment: The goal of treatment is to manage and control symptoms, and to limit the number of crises.
Frolic acid supplements should be taken, they help to make new red blood cells.
Some more treatments are blood transfusions, pain medicines, and plenty of fluids Prevention: There is no way to prevent getting sickle cell anemia. Mononucleosis: This is a viral infection. Cause: Or mono, often spread by saliva or close contact.
It is known as the kissing disease
Often develops in ages 15 to 17, but can occur in any age. Symptoms: Mono may begin slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat.
The sore throat will then get worse.
Your tonsils will become swollen with a whitish-yellow covering.
Common Symptoms: Drowsiness, fever, discomfort, loss of appetite, muscle aches, rash, sore throat
Less Frequent symptoms: Chest pain, cough, fatigue, headache, hives, neck pain, nose bleeds, headache, shortness of breathe. Treatment: Goal is to relieve symptoms
Steroid medicine may be given
Antiviral drugs have little or no benefit
Drink lost of fluids
Gargle salt water to get rid of throat pain.
Get plenty of rest
Take acetaminophen or ibuprofen for pain and fever.
Also avoid contact sports while spleen in swollen. Prevention: Persons with mononucleosis may be contagious while they have symptoms and for up to a few months after wards.
Avoid kissing or sharing utensils if you or someone close to you has mono. Myocardial Infraction: Also called a heart attack
A heart attack occurs when blood flow to a part of your heart is blocked for a long enough time that part of the heart muscle is damaged or dies. Cause: Most heart attacks are caused by a blood clot that blocks one of the coronary arteries.
A heart attack may occur when:
-Blood platelets stick to tears in the plaque and form a blood clot that blocks blood from flowing to the heart.
-A slow buildup of this plaque may almost block one of your coronary arteries.
The cause is not always known Symptoms: A heart attack is not always a medical emergency.
The pain is severe or mild: tight band around the chest, bed indigestion, something heavy on the chest, heavy pressure.
Other symptoms: Anxiety, cough, fainting, dizziness, nausea, shortness of breathe, sweating. Treatment: In hospital Treatment:
Monitor heart beats
Receive oxygen
Medications through an IV
Medications for chest pain
EMERGENCY Treatment:
Receive angioplasty; a procedure to open narrowed or blocked blood vessels that supply blood to the heart.
Receive stents
May also receive drugs
Some patients have to have a heart bypass surgery Prevention: Some tips to help prevent a heart attack are to eat healthy, stay physically fit, and do not smoke. A condition in which the heart cannot pump enough blood to the rest of the body.
Heart failure is often a long-term condition, but it can sometimes develop suddenly.
The condition may affect only the right side or only the left side of the heart. Cause: It can be caused by many different heart problems.
The most common cause of heart failure is coronary artery disease, the narrowing of the small blood vessels that supply blood and oxygen to the heart.
High blood pressure that is not well controlled may also lead to heart failure.
Other causes: Heart Attack, Heart Valve disease, abnormal heart rhythm Symptoms: Symptoms of heart failure often begin slowly.
Heart failure may also begin suddenly such as after a heart attack.
Common Symptoms: Cough, Weakness, Loss of appetite, rapid pulse, shortness of breath, swollen liver, swollen feet, weight gain Treatment: If you have heart failure your doctor will monitor you closely.
Knowing your symptoms will help you to get healthier
Watch changes in your heart rate, pulse, weight gain, and blood pressure.
Limit your amount of salt intake
Other changes to your life style: no smoking, weight loss, stay active, lower cholesterol, make sure to get enough rest.
There are also medications that can be prescribed to people who have had heart failure.
And surgery may also be required. Prevention: Most cases of heart failure can be prevented by living a healthy lifestyle and reducing your risk for heart disease. Pericarditis Its is a condition in which the sac-like covering around the heart (pericardium) becomes inflamed. Cause: The cause is often unknown or unproven.
It is often the result of an infection: Viral infections that cause a chest cold or pneumonia, influenza, infections from bacteria, fungal infection
May also be seen with a disease: Cancer, Aids, under active thyroid gland, kidney failure, tuberculosis
Other causes: heart attack, heart surgery, inflamed heart muscle, radiation therapy in the chest. Symptoms: Chest pain is almost always present.
The pain: neck, shoulder, back, abdomen, increase with coughing or swallowing, can be a sharp or stabbing pain, often relieved by sitting up.
Other symptoms: ankle, feet and leg swelling, anxiety, difficulty breathing laying down, dry cough, and fatigue. Treatment: The cause must be identified.
high dose of inflammatory drugs is given.
Other medications are given to decrease pain, and remove excess fluid build up
A small hole may have to be cut in order to drain the extra fluid. Prevention: Many cases are not preventable Cause: Hardening of the arteries is a process that often occurs with aging.
Clots may form in these narrowed arteries and block blood flow. Pieces of plaque can also break off and move to smaller blood vessels, blocking them.
High blood cholesterol levels can cause hardening of the arteries at a younger age.
Other risk factors: Diabetes, High blood pressure, smoking Symptoms: Hardening of the arteries does not cause symptoms until blood flow to part of the body becomes slowed or blocked.
If the arteries to the heart become narrow, blood flow to the heart can slow down or stop.
Narrowed or blocked arteries can also cause problems in your intestines, kidneys, legs, and brain. Treatment: Quit smoking
Avoid non-healthy foods, increase exercise, limit amount of alcohol
Get blood pressure check twice a year
Try to maintain a healthy cholesterol level.
Maintain a healthy weight
Also you may be told to take medications to help lesson the chances of blood clogging your arteries. Prevention: Stay healthy, eat right, and exercise frequently. Varicose veins: Varicose veins are twisted, enlarged veins near the surface of the skin. They are most common in the legs and ankles. They usually aren't serious, but they can sometimes lead to other problems. Cause: Symptoms: Treatment: Prevention: With varicose veins, the valves do not function properly, allowing blood to stay in the vein.
possible causes: defective valves from birth, pregnancy, Thrombophlebitis Aching
swollen veins
swelling ankles
Skin ulcers Avoid standing
raise legs when sleeping
wear elastic support hose
May require surgery, depending on the severity.
There are less invasive treatments There is no prevention that i could find that has been proven fully effective. Medical, A. D. A. M. (2012, june 25). pubmed health. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmedhealth/PMH0002099/
Med, W. (2012-2013). webmd. Retrieved from http://www.webmd.com/skin-problems-and-treatments/tc/varicose-veins-topic-overview
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