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AP Psych Chapters 10 and 11

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Transcript of AP Psych Chapters 10 and 11

Psychometric Approach
Thinking
Intelligence
Deductive vs. Inductive
Origins of Intelligence
Multiple Intelligences
A conclusion necessarily follows from a set of observations or propositions (premises)
Animal Thinking and Language
Mental Image
Solving Problems
Hierarchies (aka Cognitive Schemas)
learn from experience
solve problems
use knowledge to adapt
How do we define it?
Sternberg's Triarchic Theory
This theory states that human beings may have intelligence in one of three different areas
Environment...
Genes make a difference but so does environment.
e=mc
Correlations in Siblings’ IQ Scores
IQ
Also known as...
Concept
Yes, we are all different!
Yes, we are all different!
Yes, we are all different!
Yes, we are all different!
Yes, we are all different!
Yes, we are all different!
Explaining Group Differences
That's All Folks!
One more thing...
Thinking, Language, and Intelligence
A mental grouping of similar objects, events, ideas, or people
Prototype
A "best example" in any category of concepts
Representation that mirrors or resembles the thing it represents
mental network of knowledge, beliefs, and expectations concerning a particular topic or aspect of the world
2
Apply the formula or follow the rules, and get the right answer.
A conclusion probably follows from a set of observations or propositions or premises, but could be false
Given the information, try to figure out the formula or pattern
heuristic
algorithm
an exact formula or rule
a "rule of thumb", general rule
With all of this talk of intelligence, get this:
IQ is correlated to success in school
but not to success in life!
Research shows that the only thing
correlated to success in life is motivation!
It's the ability to...
IQ scores are distributed “normally” on a bell curve
Very high and very low scores are rare.
Highest IQ ever recorded?
228!
IQ is not the only theory of intelligence however...
A theory created by Howard Gardner...
Gardner’s theory maintains that there is not one way to measure intelligence, but eight distinct areas of intelligence.
Linguistic
Logical-mathematical
Spatial
Bodily-kinesthetic
Musical
Interpersonal
Intrapersonal
Natural
Componential - a.k.a. “Analytic”
Comparing, analyzing, and evaluating.
This type of process correlates best with IQ.

Experiential - a.k.a. “Creative”
Inventing or designing solutions to new problems.
Transfer skills to new situations.

Contextual - a.k.a. “Practical”
Using (i.e., applying) the things you know in everyday contexts.
IQ scores of siblings are highly correlated, even when they are raised apart.
Inner city high school in Detroit
Cadillac High School
Within a group with all treated exactly the same, differences may reflect genetics.

When one group differs from another, the differences may reflect environmental differences.
Think gardening...
poor prenatal care
malnutrition
severe poverty
exposure to toxins
stressful family circumstances
Healthy and stimulating environments can raise IQ, sometimes dramatically.
Do animals exhibit language?
"Without doubt, animals communicate."

Many animal species can be taught to communicate in ways that resemble language.

Chimpanzees and bonobos converse using American Sign Language and symbol board systems
An African gray parrot has been taught to count, classify, and compare objects using English words
Skeptics say this is not truly language, but imitation.
Whether these behaviors are language depends on how you define “language.”
For example, can Maggie the dog do math?
The dangers...
Anthropomorphism: The tendency to falsely attribute human qualities to nonhuman beings.

Anthropocentrism: The tendency to think, mistakenly, that human beings have nothing in common with other animals.
Metacognition
Tacit Knowledge
thinking about thinking
Skills that you pick up along the way without direct instruction
And does Kanzi really understand English?
Chapters 10 and 11
insight
a sudden realization Ah ha!
1 + a = 5
a must be
Holden wears a red hunting hat in Catcher in the Rye. Is there a pattern to when he wears it? Does it mean something?
Language
Morpheme
Phoneme
smallest unit of meaning
smallest unit of sound
undesirables has 4 morphemes -
un-desir-able-s (each part adds to meaning)
undesirables has 9 phonemes -
u-n-de-si-r-a-b-le-s
Chapter 11
general intelligence (g) factor -
the underlying intellectual capacity
"the tendency for different abilities [verbal, spatial, mathematical] to come in the same package"
Emotional Intelligence
the ability to perceive, understand, manage, and use emotions
the ability to produce something new and original
thinking that demands one right answer
thinking that imagines many possible answers
What if two groups of people have significant differences in IQ?
vs.
responsive caregiving
early childhood education
stimulating home environments
good nutrition
And we've been getting smarter!
The Flynn Effect
Mental Age
originally calculated as
Chronological Age
X 100 = IQ
Full transcript