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Shruthi Athreya

on 19 August 2015

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The Urban Development Plans Formulation & Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines was formulated in 1996 following the recommendations of the National Workshop on Master Plan Approach.

Since 1996, many changes have taken place in the field of urban development especially in view of emerging needs and requirements of urban settlements due to rapid population growth and other reasons like globalization and liberalization. Towns and cities are dynamic entities and are being subjected to unprecedented changes in terms of requirements of infrastructure and other basic services/ amenities. Besides, emerging issues like land use and transport integration within the TOD design and planning for green, compact and smart cities, along with building safer cities are at the forefront. Comprehensive Mobility Plans (CMP) for Urban Transport, Service Level Benchmarks, Disaster Management, Inclusive Planning, Sustainable Habitat, Environmentally Sustainable Transport and Urban Reforms have added to the challenges, urging significant changes in the UDPFI Guidelines, 1996.

Therefore to accommodate the wide change in urban development systems since 1996, the new amendment was made:
“The Urban and Regional Development Plans Formulation & Implementation (URDPFI) Guidelines, 2014”

Latest Amendment
"The Urban andRegional Development Plans formulation and implementation (URDPFI) Guielines, 2014 have been formulated keeping in view the emerging scenario in planned development of cities and towns. The first guidelines were prepared in 1996 lot of changes have taken place...the guidelines have included methodological framework for plan formulation at the regional level.
Venkaiah Naidu
Minister of Urban Development, India
Population Trends :

The census 2011 and 2001 give useful indicators for the trends in urbanization in India.The Million Plus population cities have shown a growth of over 48 per cent, but the number of such cities has gone up from 35 to 53 and Chennai is one of them.

Classification of Urban settlement - Census of India 2011
• All places with a Municipality, Corporation, Cantonment Board or notified town area committee, etc.
• All other places which satisfies the following criteria:
• A minimum population of 5,000;
• At least 75 per cent of the male main working population engaged in nonagricultural pursuits;
• A density of population of at least 400 persons per sq. km.

Urbanization Trends

Globally, the more urbanized countries have higher levels of income and prosperity. Indian States also exhibit the same trend. At the same time, urbanization is also perceived to be correlated with pollution, congestion and inferior quality of life. This would call for developing a paradigm of urban development that would bring in higher levels of prosperity, but without the concomitant negative effects. The UDPFI has attempted to develop such a framework.

Agglomeration of urban nodes along with its peri-urban and rural areas has currently been observed in a metropolitan city like Chennai.
Master Plan to be referred as Development Plan
The term “Development Plan” is used differently in States. Some States use it for aan integrated multisector plan, such as the District Development Plan. In some other States, it is a statutory land use plan, approved and adopted by the local authority and its proposals are precise and definite, notifying the property owners the manner in which their properties will be affected. The examples of the later type is the Chennai Master Plan.Here, both the plans, Development plans and Master plans have the same functions and impose similar controls, with variation in the use of nomenclatures by States. Many states prefer and there is a growing census to replace the terminology of ‘Master Plan’ with ‘Development Plan.’
TDR is a technique of land development, which separates the development potential of a particular parcel of land from it and allows its use elsewhere within the defined zones of the city. It allows the owner to sell the development rights of a particular parcel of land to another. This entitlement is over and above the usual FSI available for receiving plot in accordance with the prevailing laws and regulations, which entitles a land‐owner to constructadditional built-up area on his existing building or vacant land.TDR is taken away from the zone and it is tradable which makes it different from Accommodation Reservation. This is also generally used for redevelopment of inner city zones and for reconstruction/ redevelopment and has been tried out in numerous cities/ States including Chennai. However it has its prospects and consequences as experienced from the implementation in various cities. For instance, unbridled pooling of TDRs could damage the urban form, TOD strategies, quality of public spaces, etc. Hence it should be used carefully within a predefined spatial framework.

Transferable Development Rights (TDR)
Metropolitan Planning Region
Metropolitan area is a large urban settlement, which has population from 10 lakh and above. The aerial extent of such settlements is huge and often spread across multiple districts. India has 53 metropolitan cities per Census, 2011. Many of these cities have already been covered by metropolitan planning or development authorities such as Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai, Bangalore, Hyderabad, Ahmedabad and Guwahati. Formulation of Metropolitans Authorities was conceived with the idea of initiating the integrated planning and development of the major cities and their surrounding areas. Constitution requires the States to constitute Metropolitan Planning Committees through State legislature.
Metropolitan Administrative set ups
As major cities increase in size, Municipal Bodies often turn out to be inadequate to meet the requirements. Thus, the need for Metropolitan Regional Development Authority (MRDA) Acts was felt, to regulate a designated jurisdiction covering urban andperiurban areas. The authorities formed under these acts perform functions in close coordination with the State agencies, apart from the already core Municipal Corporations. MRDAs perform the function of integrated spatial planning and inducing coordination among the numerous authorities and institutions operating in/forthe region, thus facilitating the planned growth in a smooth urban‐rural continuum framework.
Investment Planning Regions
Investment Regions/ Zones are generally areas which show potential for development due to economic forces. These areas face problem of uncontrolled land confiscation and holding by the private entities. Due to lack of policies or plan to control development in such places haphazard development of commercial, industrial activities and human settlement takes place along transportation nodes and routes. Urbanization the eco sensitive areas takes place and natural resources are misused in the process of unplanned growth. Thus, the planning efforts of the investment regions must be undertaken at the earliest to realize the scope of economic development with the global vision. Government of India has started the process of developing investment zones across the country. DMIC, Chennai‐ Bangalore Economic Corridor.

Aspects of Planning

• Planning of the port and its surrounding area to be based on the harbour structure, port infrastructure, cargo capacity, facilities including jetties & wharfs, Godown facilities and on the understanding of its backward& forward linkages of the commodities of import and export.
• The following port supporting infrastructure could be considered in a port city as per requirement:
• Encourage logistics infrastructure development by private or by the ULBs to generate revenue. Logistics as a backward linkage benefits from port &other industries and generates direct and indirect employment.

• Separate rail lines and cargo/freight handling junctions to be situated along the port and its industries.
• Aerodrome, if existing, can be extended to commercial operations as well.
• During planning, provision for pipelines infrastructure in and around port city to be given attention
• Innovative and feasible alternatives of water supply infrastructure, using techniques such as desalination, reverse osmosis to be considered.
• Appropriate disposal system for industrial effluents, sewerage and solid waste.
• Area identification for Cyclone Shelters in view of cyclone proneness and Hazard Line demarcation.
• Sectors with focus on local raw material available from the natural resource base have due advantage to bring benefit to the local economy.
• The areas marked as high cropping intensity should be left as green/agriculture.
• Also, Ship building industry to be allowed/considered along the coastal front

• Institutional development is complementary and key support to port city industrial development for sectors such as port & logistics.
• Urban Planning Approach required and crucial in light engineering for technical inputs. Similarly semiskilled manpower is prime logistics requirement. Developmentcentres for skilled and semiskill labour shall be developed as a part of institutional facility.
• Office spaces and Information Technology is a support system required for high end and value addition in the entire industrial zone.
• Besides this, Marine mining & biotechnology may benefit from research & development. R& D can be diverted to add value to agriculture, pharmaceuticals etc. also.The National Environmental Policy, 2006 suggests actions to conserve coastal resources explicitly consider sea level rise and vulnerability of coastal areas to climate change and geological events, in coastal management plans, as well as infrastructure planning and construction norms.

Adopt a comprehensive approach to Integrated Coastal Management by addressinglinkages between coastal areas, wetlands, and river systems, in relevant policies, regulation, and programs. Environment risks and mitigation plan to be taken into consideration while planning the port city development. Sustainability of the port is reflected from its planning as per local weather conditions and for Ecologically Sensitive Areas & Protected areas such as CRZ, Marine National park and sanctuaries, specifically taking into consideration the climate change. Port city design is generally in grid formation. This is due to alignment with the wind flow directions in the coastal areas as sea breezes and helps to reduce pressure of cyclonic winds, apart from the influence of mangroves on the cyclone.

In case of older cities where ports were set up many years ago, the aim is to attain sustainable growth of the city by decongesting city centres while at the same time allowing greater growth in the commercial and industrial sectors by connecting these cities to smaller towns, suburbs and decentralized hubs of activity. Apart from coastal ports, India also has Dry ports‐ Inland Container Depots (ICD) and Container freight Stations (CFS) are alternatively called Dry Ports. ICD and CFS provide warehousing space, temporary storage and handling equipment for import and export load, as well as empty containers. Rail network should be provided for strong connectivity between port cities and dry ports.

Town and country planning act of Tamil Nadu includes:

1. State Planning Committee/Board/Authority - Provision of State Planning board

2. Functions Of State Planning Board - To guide, direct and assist the planning authorities ƒ Advise the State Government on planning matters. Direct the preparation of Development Plans by Planning Authorities, prepare and furnish reports relating to the working T&C Act.

3. Metropolitan Development /Planning Authority/Committee - Establishment of Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority Functions and Powers : ƒ To prepare a Master Plan or a Plan or a new Town Development Plan ƒ To prepare a new Town Development Plan for the area concerned to secure the laying out and development of the new town in accordance with the new town development plan.

4. Planning Area:
Regional Planning area based on Population and type of development.
Local Planning Area based on Population and type of development and provision in Regional Plan
New Town Area - Based on population and type of development and provision as new town in regional plan.

5. Planning Authorities - Authorities to be constituted at different level as: The Regional Planning Authority
The Local Planning Authority
The New Town Development Authority

6. Function and powers of Planning Authority -
The Regional Planning Authority to:
Carry out a survey and prepare reports on the surveys
Prepare an existing land use map
Local Planning Authority to:
Carry out a survey of the Local Planning Area
Prepare reports on the surveys
Prepare a Master Plan and a Detailed Development Plan
New Town Development Authority to:
Prepare a new Town Development Plan
Carry out building and other operations

7. Preparation of plans -
Master Plan
New Town Development Plan
Detailed Development plan

8. Scope/Objectives/Contents of Plans - Objectives of each type of plan is defined

9. Provision for regional planning - Provision for regional planning to be done by regional planning authority

10. Town planning/ Development scheme - Detailed town planning schemes prepared under the Tamil Nadu Town Planning Act, 1920

11. Periodic revision of plans - Provision of reviewing the regional plan once in 10 years and the master plan may be reviewed once in 5 years.

12. Land assembly/ Mechanism/ Acquisition -
Power to acquire land under the acquisition act
Acquisition of land by agreement, however if the value of such land exceeds fifty thousand rupees, appropriate planning authority shall not enter into such agreement without previous approval of the Government.

Legal requirement for industrial development
IT /ITES Sector: No minimum land area requirement for IT/ITES SEZs is prescribed, but these will have to conform to a minimum built up area requirement.
– The minimum built up area requirement of 1,00,000 square meters will now be insisted upon for seven major cities viz: Mumbai, Delhi (NCR), Chennai,
Hyderabad, Bangalore, Pune and Kolkata,
– For the other set of Category B cities 50,000 square meters norm will be
applicable and
– For the remaining cities / locations 25,000 square meters of minimum built up
area will be insisted upon.

Alandur Underground Sewerage Project:
The Alandur Sewerage Project (ASP) was initiated in the year 1996. The ASP was the first project in
the municipal water sector to be taken through the Public Private Partnership route in India. The
proposed sewerage system was to be designed for the estimated population of about 300,000in 2027
and was planned to be completed within a five-year period from its inception date.
Alandur Municipality (AM), located adjacent to Chennai, forms a part of the Chennai Metropolitan
Area. With a population of around 165,000 (Census of India, 2011), the municipality is a residential
suburb of Chennai with predominantly residential and commercial activities. Approximately one-
fourth of its population lives in slums. Prior to 1996, the town did not have an underground sewerage
system and all sewage was managed with individual septic tanks. In 1996, AM announced an
ambitious plan to construct an underground sewerage system and wastewater treatment facility with
the participation of the private sector, contribution from the public, and payment to be provided by
the city.
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