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Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs

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Dana Druker

on 15 February 2018

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Transcript of Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs

Alcohol, Tobacco, and Other Drugs
Use of Drugs

A Powerful

Making Decisions
Use the D.E.C.I.D.E. Model to make the best decision for you

8th Grade Health Education
What is a Drug?
A drug is a substance other than food that changes the way the body or mind works.
Prescription Drugs
a medicine that can be obtained only with a written order from a doctor (prescription)
How Drugs Work Inside the Body
drugs have different effects on different
parts of the body

receptor site- the part of the cells where the chemical substance in a drug fits

Specific drugs work on specific receptor sites but can act on more than one site

Side Effects- unwanted body change that
is not related to the main product
of the drug
Factors that Effect How Body is Affected
Drug Use
Drugs can be used responsibly or irresponsibly
Responsible Drug Use
the correct use of legal drugs to promote health and well-being
Drug Misuse
the unintentional use of an over-the-counter (OTC) or prescription drug
Drug Abuse
the intentional use of an illegal drug or an OTC or a prescription drug
Ways Drugs Enter
the Body?
By Mouth
drug is taken orally or swallowed

The drug travels to the stomach then to the small intestine where it is absorbed into the bloodstream.
By Injection
drug is injected from a syringe or needle, goes directly under the skin and into a muscle or blood vessel

Drug affects person immediately if injected into blood vessel
By Inhalation
drug is inhaled through the
mouth or nose

drug then travels to the lungs where it enters the bloodstream

almost an immediate affect on person taking drug
By Absorption
drug enters the bloodstream through the skin or mucous membranes

drug is usually applied as an ointment, lotion, cream, spray
or a patch
The way the drug enters the body
affects speed the drugs takes to affect the person
the amount of a drug that is taken at one time
the ability of a substance to be dissolved

water-soluble drugs leave the body faster than
fat-soluble drugs
Weight, Age, and Health Status
low body weight vs high
younger vs older
good health vs poor health
depressed individuals can become more depressed
"hyper" individuals can become more "hyper"
Use Of
Other Drugs
one drug can react with another and have unexpected effects
Over-the-Counter Drugs
a drug that can be purchased without a prescription
Drug Dependence
the continued use of a drug even though it harms the body, mind, and relationships

Physical Dependence is a condition in which a person develops tolerance and a drug becomes necessary or the person experiences withdrawal symptoms

Psychological Dependence is a strong desire to continue using a drug for emotional reasons
Classroom Expectations
I expect you to...
Be respectful: to the teacher and other students, as well as classroom materials

Be prepared: come to class with all materials for class

Be attentive: be considerate of others in the classroom especially when it is their turn to speak

Follow directions the first time they are given
Raise your hand and wait to be called on

Use appropriate terminology, try your hardest
to avoid slang terms

Actively participate in all daily activities and lessons
(daily participation points)
Daily Participation Points for Health
You behavior in class, when you arrive to class, whether you are prepared for class, your participation in class and your attitude throughout class with determine whether or not you lose points for the day

10 points a day: How it is broken down

Timeliness= 2 points (both yourself and your assignments)

Attitude= 3 points (how well you follow directions, doing as you are told, disrespecting teacher, classmate or materials, disruptive behavior)
Preparation= 2 points (do you have your homework,
writing utensils, spiral)
Participation= 3 points (are you taking part in
discussions and activities done in class?)

Binge Drinking

Peer Pressure
Media Messages

How might these factors influence your decisions?

Can you think of any other influences?

On Respiratory System

Breathing- Alcohol depresses the nerves that control involuntary function

In excess, breathing may slow, become
irregular or stop

Short-term Effects of Drinking

Blood alcohol concentration-
The amount of alcohol in a
person’s blood

The more a person drinks the higher his or her BAC

Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC)
On Digestive System

Stomach-alcohol may pass quickly from stomach to blood stream, stomach acid production increases resulting in nausea and vomiting

Liver- Toxic chemicals are released as liver breaks down alcohol causing inflammation and scarring

Kidneys- Causes kidneys to increase urine output which can lead to dehydration

Short-term Effects of Drinking

On the Nervous System:

Brain- Become less able to control body movement, speech, and vision may become impaired

Memory-Thought processes are disorganized
Memory and concentration are dulled

Judgment- Becomes altered and coordination is impaired

Short-term Effects of Drinking

Motor skills
slowed reaction time
impaired vision

Impairs judgment and ability to think
clearly and rationally

The state in which the body is poisoned by alcohol or another substance and the person’s physical and mental control is significantly reduced

Immediate Effects of Alcohol

Alcohol and

On the Cardiovascular System:

Heart- Increased heart rate and blood pressure
with low intake

Decreased heart rate and blood pressure, irregular
heart beat with high intake

Blood vessels- Blood vessels expand which allows body heat to escape and the body temperature to drop

Short-term Effects of Drinking

A powerful and addictive drug

A depressant- a drug that slows the central nervous system

Can have harmful physical, mental, social and legal consequences

What is Alcohol?


.30 BAC-
Vomiting alternating with unconsciousness, death may result

.20 BAC-
Difficulty walking, standing, possible loss of bladder control

.10 BAC-
Legally drunk in most states
over the legal driving limit of .08 in Wisconsin
Greatly slowed reaction time, likelihood of a car crash is 7 times higher

.05 BAC-
changes in behavior, slower reaction time, some loss of self control and judgment

Alcohol poisoning-
a severe and potentially deadly physical
reaction to an alcohol overdose

Involuntary functions are shut down
(breathing and the gag reflex)

Binge Drinking-
Drinking five or more alcoholic drinks at one sitting

Can cause alcohol poisoning,
which can be fatal

Factors that Influence Alcohol Use

Mental confusion, coma, vomiting , seizures
Slow respiration (10 seconds between breaths or fewer than 8 breaths an minute

Irregular heart beat
Hypothermia or low body temperature- discolored skin
Severe dehydration from vomiting
Effects of Alcohol Poisoning
D= define the problem

E= evaluate the situation

C= Consider consequences

I= identify alternatives

D=decide and develop a plan

E= evaluate the outcome
Tobacco and
it's Effects

Propylene Glycol
and Methanol
Carcinogens- A cancer-causing substance

11 known human carcinogens in
tobacco smoke

Cigarette smoke contains more than
4,000 chemical compounds

Ingredients in Cigarettes
Carbon monoxide- A colorless, odorless, and poisonous gas that is taken up more readily by the blood than oxygen is

Replaces the oxygen in the blood and deprives the tissues and cells of the body of oxygen which is necessary for proper function

Increases the risk for high blood pressure, heart disease, and hardening of arteries

Carbon Monoxide

Today, in the US, tobacco products will kill
about 1,200 people

Every 6.5 seconds, someone in the world dies from a smoking related disease

5.6 trillion cigarettes are produced each year, amounting to nearly 900 cigarettes per every man, woman, and child in the world

Tobacco Facts


Dulled taste buds and reduced appetite
Lose the ability to enjoy food

Bad breath and smelly hair, clothes and skin
May cause people to avoid smokers
Changes in brain chemistry-
Make body crave nicotine
Withdrawal symptoms

Increased respiration or heart rate
Difficulty breathing during physical activity
Nicotine may cause irregular heart rate

Short-Term Effects
Chemical formed when
burning coal and oil


Active ingredient in paint thinners and Embalmer’s Glue

ingredient used in making nuclear bombs

Plutonium 210
Active ingredient in rat poison


preserves dead things and
prevents natural decay


Chemical Compounds Found in Cigarettes

Hydrogen cyanide

Ingredients in Cigarettes
Tar- A thick, sticky, dark fluid produced when tobacco burns

Destroys cilia in respiratory system
cilia line the upper airway and protect against infection

Damages air sacs that absorb oxygen and rid the body of carbon dioxide

Destroys lung tissue making the lungs less able to function

Leave lungs susceptible to bronchitis, pneumonia, emphysema, and cancer

Tar from Cigarettes

Nicotine- addictive drug found in tobacco leaves (naturally occurring)

is a stimulant

Stimulant- a drug that increases the action of the central nervous system, the heart, and other organs

Nicotine reaches the brain in 10 seconds after smoke is inhaled


Smoking is the number one cause of preventable disease and death in the US

About 50,000 people die each year from secondhand smoke-related diseases in US alone

In the US, tobacco kills more people than
auto accidents, homicide, AIDS, drugs and
fires combined

Tobacco Facts

Cancers: Lung, Mouth, Cheek, Lip, Throat

Cardiovascular Disease
Heart Attack

Chronic Bronchitis- damage to the cilia in bronchi until they no longer function

Build-up of tar in lungs causing chronic cough and mucus secretion

Emphysema- Disease that destroys the tiny air sacs in the lungs
Makes absorbing oxygen difficult
Advanced stages- person may use 80% of their energy just to breathe

Long-Term Health Risks
a strong chemical that is found in household and toilet bowl cleaners, it boosts the impact of nicotine

Poison and chemical found in batteries

A poison used in gas chamber executions and also in rat poison

Hydrogen Cyanide

a chemical found in nail polish remover
What are some other consequences you can think of?

What are some things that influence decisions to smoke?

Other Consequences

Three men who appeared in Marlboro advertisements died
of lung cancer
The original Marlboro Man died of emphysema

Controlled and
Illegal Drugs

Controlled Drugs
-a drug whose possession, manufacture, distribution, and sale are controlled by law

-have powerful effects on the mind and body

-prescription is required to purchase and must be dispensed by a pharmacist
-a group of drugs that increase the
activities of the central nervous system

-increase the sense of alertness, blood pressure and heart rate

-tolerance occurs very quickly

Sedatives and Hypnotic Drugs
a group of drugs that depress the central nervous systems activities

Sedatives have a calming effect on behavior
Barbiturates- a type of sedative drug that is prescribed by doctors to help people sleep
Tranquilizers- sedatives prescribed to help treat anxiety

Hypnotic drugs promote drowsiness and sleep

slow reaction times, dizziness, nausea, headaches
A group of drugs that slow down the central nervous system, cause drowsiness and can be used a painkillers

Morphine- a narcotic that is used to control pain

Codeine- a narcotic painkiller produced from morphine (weaker)

Heroin- an illegal narcotic derived from morphine that has no approved medical use
an illegal drug containing THC that impairs short term memory and changes mood -has limited medical use (mostly cancer patients to avoid nausea

Hashish is a drug that comes from the marijuana plant and has a stronger effect than marijuana

over 150 different chemicals in marijuana and hashish

a group of drugs that interfere with the senses, causing people to see and hear things that are not real - effects can last for hours or even days
are chemicals that when inhaled
produce hallucinogenic effects

often household and industrial chemicals that were not intended to be inhaled

are solvents or liquids that become gas at room temperature, aerosol sprays like spray paint and air fresheners, markers or glue

Cocaine and Crack
Cocaine is a highly addictive drug obtained from
the leaves of the coca bush; generally snorted but can be absorbed through mucous membranes

inhaled- 3 minutes
injected- 15 seconds
smoked-7 seconds

Crack is a purified form of cocaine the produces a rapid and intense reaction- effects are 10 times greater than snorted cocaine
Amphetamines and Methamphetamines
Amphetamines are chemically manufactured drugs that are highly addictive

Methamphetamines produce an effect similar to cocaine
Crank and Ice
newer versions of stimulants that cause and immediate addiction

Crank is an amphetamine like stimulant with effects that last longer than cocaine

Ice is a smokeable form of pure
meth and its effects last longer
than crack
affects memory, concentration, judgement, ability to make responsible decisions, damages
lungs and immune system
hallucinogen usually sold illegally in powder, tablet, or capsule form

-can cause a person to feel confused or see things that to do not exist, produces a false sense of power
(think you can fly or stop moving cars)

- produces flashbacks
also known as angel dust, is a hallucinogen that can act as stimulant or depressant

can cause slurred speech, vomiting, and loss of muscle control

can cause people to become
aggressive and violent
an illegal hallucinogen made from the peyote cactus plant

causes many of the same effects as LSD

can affect the brain within 30 seconds of entering the body and lasts 12 hours
Brain Buster
Using the information provided find the following:

1. There is a pool that 30,000 Marlboro miles, how much money is spent to get the pool through buying cigarettes?
2. How long would it take to get the pool if you smoked a pack a day?
3. How many minutes would it take off your life? How many hours? Weeks? Months? Years?
Each pack of cigarettes costs $8.00 per pack
Each pack has 20 cigarettes
Each cigarette takes 7 minutes off your life
Each pack of Marlboros has 5 miles on them as an incentive program
same as the gas released from a cow when it farts
both are chemicals found in antifreeze
a substance found in urine (pee)
- tolerance occurs when the person no longer responds to the drug in the way that person initially responded
- it takes a higher dose of the drug to achieve the same level of response achieved initially
Ways They Are Used
1. sniffing fumes from a container or dispenser
(such as a glue bottle or a marking pen)

2. spraying aerosols (such as computer cleaning dusters) directly into the nose or mouth

3. Huffing from a chemical-soaked rag in the mouth or sniffing or inhaling fumes from chemicals sprayed or put inside a plastic or paper bags (bagging)

4. inhaling from balloons filled with nitrous oxide
also called laughing gas

effects only last minutes so users do this several times an hour

can cause death

1. slurred and distorted speech
2. lack of or loss of coordination
3. “high” feeling or euphoria
4. dizziness
5. headaches
6. vomiting

Short-term Effects
1. liver and kidney damage
2. hearing loss
3. bone marrow damage
4. nerve damage
5. brain damage from
cut-off oxygen flow

Long-term Effects
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