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Chicago & the Field Museum of Natural History: A Gateway to the Pacific

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Dale Simpson Jr.

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Transcript of Chicago & the Field Museum of Natural History: A Gateway to the Pacific

William Jones
Chicago and the Field Museum of Natural History:
A Gateway to the Pacific

Important
Events
Pacific
Collections

Research
Dale F. Simpson Jr.
Centennial Scholar/Ph.D. Candidate/Outreach Facilitator - UQ
Docent- UQ Anthropology Museum
Instructor - Department of Anthropology College of DuPage
Instructor - Terevaka.net Archaeological Outreach

Thank you!
Traditional owners of the land
UQ School of Social Science
UQ Anthropology Museum
Pacific Exhibits
Traveling the Pacific
Chicago & Anthropology
Important
Events

Pacific
Expeditions

Pacific Exhibits
The Field Museum
Today

Pacific Collections
Started Dept. of ANTH:
Curator for:
Serpent Mound: First
U.S. Archaeological State Park
Frederic Ward Putnam
"When the Department of Ethnology [for the World's Columbian Exposition] was organized in February, 1891, it was with the understanding that a considerable amount of money should be appropriated for original scientific work and that the results thus obtained should be retained in Chicago as the nucleus of a scientific institution which should be established in the city and should be named the Columbus Memorial Museum. It is hoped that at the close of the Exposition the friends of science will unite in carrying out this plan to endow the city of Chicago with a museum of the natural sciences....From this outline sketch of Department M, known as that of Ethnology, in the World's Columbian Exposition, it is evident that the amount of scientific material brought together from all parts of the world affords a broad field for the study of man and his surroundings, from the earliest times to the present day; and it will undoubtedly awaken a new interest in the problems relating to the origin of man and to his distribution over the earth; while the science of anthropology in all its branches can but receive an impetus form this comprehensive exhibit."
http://www.flickr.com/photos/field_museum_library/sets/72157616234589478/
http://www.encyclopedia.chicagohistory.org/pages/10610.html
Museums
Universities/
Colleges
Theory
Application
Human diversity
through time
Find this presentation at Google>Dale Simpson Prezi
Sol Bloom
George Dorsey- Archaeology
Franz Boas-
Physical
Anthropology
Dutch Settlement & Javanese Village
300 Javanese, Sumatran, Samoan, Maori, Fijian, Hawaiian
Samoans preforming tapate
Hula
Department "M", Anthropology Building: Man and His Works , & the ethnological village
Midway Plaisance
State/Nation Buildings
U.S. Government Building
George Brown
Goode
Otis Tufton
Mason
William Henry
Holmes
U.S. National Museum
Bureau of American Ethnology
Manufactures &
Liberal Arts Building
Mines Building
Machinery Building
Transportation Building
Agricultural Building
Horticultural Building
U.S. Building
Ferris wheel
Fine Arts
Machinery Building
Agricultural Building
Illinois Building
"Ruins of Yucatan."
Anthropology Building
Administration Building
$100,000 & some help...
100 Collectors
Javanese Village
Pele & Kilauea
Iowa, Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska Buildings
Norway, Sweden, Germany
New South Whales
Pacific Representation in 1893
3: 39
1: 2
1: 3
2: 43
Collection: Artifacts
5: 68
2:2
4: 10
3: 65
3: 561
3: 39
Nuie
2: 3
Kiribati
Vanuatu
3:461
6: 46
1:
1:1
7:389
2:2
5: 426
2676 Total Artifacts (TFM 3-4000 )
Academics
1889-93 The Great Palaeolithic War
W. McGee
W. Holmes
J. Powell
T. Chamberlin
G. Wright
F. Putnam
F. Boas
G. Dorsey
W. Harper
F. Boas
T. Chamberlin
W. Holmes
George Brown
Goode
1890-1893 Pre-WCE/WCE
Otis Tufton
Mason
F. Starr
Thomas
Wilson
Thomas
Wilson
F. Skiff
T. Chamberlin
W. Holmes
M. Field
G. Dorsey
F. Boas
F. Putnam
W. Holmes
G. Dorsey
1896/7-1905
BAE
USGS
UC
OC
USNM
UC
BAE/USNM/SMITHSONIAN
J. Powell
TFM
TFM
TFM
WCE -mid 1894
W. McGee
F. Putnam
F. Boas
Peabody/
Harvard
USNM
W. McGee
BAE
Columbia
F. Boas
F. Putnam
W. Holmes
G. Dorsey
F. Skiff
TFM
USNM
Columbia
Peabody/
Harvard
Robert
Lowie
Melville
Herskovits
Alfred Louis
Kroeber
Ruth
Benedict
Margaret Mead
Edward Sapir
A.B.
Lewis
Clark
Wissler
Franz Boas
Fay Cooper-Cole
G. Dorsey
"With the addition...we at once take a position among the museums of the world as the possessor of Pacific Island collections. It need not call your attention to the fact that the logical extension of our ethnographic section is towards the Pacific and South America...If we are to extend the limits of our department beyond the contours of North America, this is certainly the most favorable opportunity we shall ever have for making a beginning in this direction."
1905-7 Acquires curio collections:
1) Webster Pacific collection (355 objects);
2) J.F.G. Umlauff collection (65,000 marks)
with ~3,000 pieces, including the Maori
marae Ruatepupuke II.
Although haphazardly collected with little contextual data, Dorsey's 3340 total artifacts sets a benchmark, introduces U.S. museum collecting into the Pacific and sends German museum anthropologists into a collection panic.
1897 Exchange for 52 skulls with R. Parkinson
Dorsey meets R. Parkinson;
Inspects remaining collections;
Arranges Parkinson (H. Voogdt also) as a resident collector.
"We should expend within the next three years in the region between central Australia and the Philippines, and between Singapore and Fiji the sume of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars-at least"

Paves the way for A.B. Lewis and further justifies Cole, Jones and Simms
1905 Interest in R. Parkinson's complete collection
($3,500)
R. Parkinson
1907 R. Parkinson sends 8 crates of artifacts & 1 crate of skulls to Chicago
The FCM would buy their collections later (5206 pieces from Voogdt 1909) & (2778 pieces from Parkinson 1908-9)
G. Dorsey
R. Parkinson
Dorsey tells Parkinson focus on: Roviana group, stone figures from S. New Ireland, Tabar malagan carvings, New Britain masks, Baining items
Parkinson gets sick & quits collecting.
G. Dorsey

"When you go into an indian's house and you do not find the old man at home and there is something you want, you can do one of three things; go hunt up the old man and keep hunting until you find him; give the old woman such price for it as she may ask for it running the risk that the old man will be offended; or steal it. I tried all three plans and I have no choice to recommend."
CON
PRO
mid 1894-1897
1. J.F.G. Umlauff
2. Peace collection
3. K.K. Naturhistorisches Hofmuseum
4. Finsch collection
5. Hagenbeck collection

1893 World Columbian Exposition (WCE)
The Birth of the Field Museum & the Politricks of Chicago
Publications/
Associations
www.pacificanthropology.org
The Godfather
Pacific Expeditions
1. Laura Benedict 1905-7 Ethnological – Philippine Islands: Bagobo
2. Alfred R. Brown 1905-6 Ethnological – Andaman and Nicobar Islands
3. Alleyne Ireland 1905 Ethnological – Malay Peninsula
4. Fay Cooper Cole 1906-8 Ethnological – Luzon Philippines: Tinguianes
5. Stephen Simms 1906-7 Cummings Philippine Ethnological Exploration – Luzon, Philippines: Igorrot
6. Alfred R. Brown 1907-8 Ethnological – Andaman and Nicobar Islands
7. William Jones 1907 Cummings Philippine Ethnological Exploration – Philippine Islands: Negrito
8. William Jones 1907-9 Cummings Philippine Ethnological Exploration – Philippine Islands: Mayayo, Ingorot, Ibalaas
9. George A. Dorsey 1908-9 – Philippines, Java, Australia, Solomon Islands,
Bismarck Arch., New Ireland, New Guinea, Buka,Bougainville
10. Fay Cooper Cole 1906-8 Ethnological – Cummings Philippine Ethnological Exploration – Luzon, Philippines: Mangyan
11. William Jones 1907-9 (Murdered 1909) Cummings Philippine Ethnological Exploration – Philippine Islands: Negrito
12. A.B Lewis 1909-13 Joseph N. Field South Pacific Expedition/Ethnological – Near Oceania/Fiji
13. Stephen Simms 1909 (To collect Jones’ material) Ethnological – Luzon, Philippines: Igorot and Ilongot
14. Fay Cooper Cole 1910-11 Cummings Philippine Ethnological Exploration –
Philippine Islands: Bukidnon, Mandaya, Manobo, Negrito, and Bataan Bagobo
15. Fay Cooper Cole 1922-3 Jones (Arthur) Malayan Archipelago Ethnological Expedition
16. Malvina Hoffman 1932 Chauncey Keep Memorial Hall sculpture work – Philippines, Java, Bali, Singapore, Malaya
17. Alexander Spoehr 1947 Ethnological Expedition to Micronesia – Marshall Islands
18. Alexander Spoehr 1949-50 Anthropological Expedition to Micronesia – Marianas Islands
19. Phillip H. Lewis 1953-4 Ethnological – Melanesia, Lossu Village, New Ireland
20. Kenneth Starr 1960 Formosa anthropological field trip – Taiwan
21. Fred Reinman 1965-6 Marinas Island archaeological expedition (mostly Guam)
22. Phillip H. Lewis 1968-9 Variation in Art and Society in New Ireland
23. Phillip H. Lewis 1970 Ethnological – Melanesia, Lossu Village, New Ireland
24. Bennett Bronson 1975-6 Archaeological – Indonesia
25. John E. Terrell 1975-6 Archaeological – Solomon Islands
26. Phillip H. Lewis 1981 Ethnological – Melanesia, Lossu Village, New Ireland
27. John E. Terrell 1986 Reconnaissance – Fiji
28. John E. Terrell 1986 Tokomaru Bay – New Zealand
29. John E. Terrell 1986 Archaeological – Hawaii
30. John E. Terrell 1990 Reconnaissance – Aitape District, West Sepik (Sandun) Province, PNG
31. John E. Terrell/Robert L. Welsh 1990 A.B. Lewis Research Project in Aitape, West Sepik, PNG
32. John E. Terrell/Robert L. Welsh 1993 Aitape District, West Sepik (Sandun) Province, PNG
33. John E. Terrell/Robert L. Welsh 1997 Aitape District, West Sepik (Sandun) Province, PNG
34. Robert L. Welsh 1997 Aitape District, PNG
35. Chris Phillips 2008 Marquesas
36. Chris Phillips 2011 Tonga
George Dorsey
1904-11
1922-2011
1898 Becomes CFM curator
William
Jones
Zora Neale Hurston
Buka &
Bougainville
New
Ireland
New
Britian
Sepik
River
1908
Source Geographical Area Number of Objects Acquisition Date(s) of Acquisition
A. B. Lewis Melanesia 14020 Expedition 1909-1913
A. W. F. Fuller Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia 7170 Purchase 1958
Alexander Spoehr Micronesia 198 Expedition/Gift 1947-1952, 1977
Bishop Museum Polynesia (Hawai'i and Marquesas) 128 Official Exchange 1925
Buffalo Museum of Science/ P.G. Black Melanesia 134 Official Exchange 1939
Fred M. Reinman Micronesia 1000 Expedition 1966
George Dorsey Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, 3340 Expedition 1908-1909
H. Voogdt Melanesia, Polynesia 5206 Purchase 1909
J.G. Peace Melanesia, Polynesia 677 Purchase 1893
J. F. G. Umlauff Australia, Melanesia, Micronesia, Polynesia 3000 Purchase 1899 - 1905
Oceanic Trading Company Melanesia, Polynesia 62 Purchase 1893
Otto Finsch Polynesia, Melanesia, Micronesia 507 Purchase 1893 - 1895
Philipp Marquesas Collection Polynesia (Marquesas) 35 Expedition 2008
Phillip Lewis Melanesia 118 Expedition/Gift/Purchase 1955, 1969, 1971, 1981
Rev. Irving Channon Micronesia 260 Purchase 1907
Richard Parkinson Melanesia, Micronesia, Australia 2778 Gift/Purchase 1898, 1907-1908
Royal Buscombe Samoa, Tonga, Fiji 73 Gift 2008
Templeton Crocker Polynesia (Marquesas/Samoa) 835 Gift 1934
University of Melbourne/ W. Baldwin Spencer Australia 290 Official Exchange 1911
W. D. Webster Melanesia, Polynesia 344 Gift/Purchase 1905
John Terrell Melanesia, Polynesia 25 Gift 1976, 1978, 2007
Robert Welsch Melanesia, Indonesia 711 Gift/Purchase 1984, 1987, 1992, 1995
John Terrell, Robert Welsch Melanesia 146 Gift/Purchase 1990, 1998
Audrey Lewis, Robert Welsch Melanesia 29 Purchase 2001
John Terrell, Robert Welsch, Wilfred Oltomo Melanesia 1122 Expedition 1994
Indonesia Collection Indonesia 14000
Philippines Collection Philippines 11000

Other Collections Throughout Pacific 22792

Total Pacific Collection Throughout Pacific 90000
Pacific Collection On Display 1086
Current Musuem Loans 21
Pacific Spirits
Marae Ruatepupuke II
Curation
Partnerships
The Field Museum
Today

G. Dorsey
G. Dorsey
G. Dorsey

The Chicago fair that changed the world
1896 Becomes CFM assistant curator of physical anthropology
"My plan would be to leave Chicago early next year for the Philippines where I would spend some time in making collections, using the Cummings' funds for such purpose and also defraying from the same fund a legitimate share of my expenses while abroad. From the Islands I should proceed by direct route is New Ireland, and then visit in turn the Maoris of New Zealand' at least one Australian tribe, the Australian museums; two or three different regions in New Guinea, both English and Dutch; one or two of the smaller islands of the Dutch archipelago; at least one region in Java; one in Borneo: one or two tribes in the Malay Peninsula, and the Rock Veddas of Ceylon. I have made as accurate an estimate as to the time involved in such a trip as possible, and believe it could be done in the neighborhood of six months"
G. Dorsey
G. Dorsey
F.W. Putnam
Toured with Imperial Governor A. Hahl and geographer K. Sapper
July 9th 1908 - Arrival in PNG
Admiralty
Islands
German ethnographic zone
Collected ~1500 items from Bismarck Arch.
August 8th 1908 - Return back to PNG
Toured with Capt. H. Voogdt & the New Guinea Company's 200 ton steamer Siar.
Collected ~2000 items from 21 coastal and Sepik River communities
Rate of 100 objects a day!
+200 buildings/structures
27 million people
65,000 exhibits
46 countries represented
400 years since Columbus
3 years/$26 million
Fay Cooper-Cole
T. Chamberlin
Harvard/
Peabody
Clark
UC
BAE
M. Field
James Mooney
Ethnology
John W.
Powell
Alfred Louis
Kroeber
UC Berkley
Melanesian
Collection 1896
Full transcript