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trevor johnson

on 23 October 2013

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Transcript of Crossbow

Who Invented The Crossbow/ Where Was It Invented
When Was The Crossbow Invented
Crossbows Cultural Diffusion
The crossbow cultural diffusion started off in China and Europe. No one knows if one of the the countries found out and copied the other country or if they both thought up the same idea and eventually both made a crossbow, no one is sure? During the middle ages Europe heavily used the crossbow. Communication was established by then and other countries started using crossbows too. Trading was also another big reason for the crossbows cultural diffusion when countries would trade with each other they might barter a crossbow for another item they wanted. There are multiple reasons for the cultural diffusion of the crossbow, some of which are happening today. Crossbows aren't used for warfare anymore but they are used for other things like hunting so there is lot of commerce of crossbows throughout countries which is considered as cultural diffusion.
Improvements to Crossbow
The crossbow was first to believed built in (circa 395 B.C.) it was a gastraphetes or a belly bow because you had to draw it by putting the stock against your stomach. About (circa 300 B.C.) a siege engine called the ballista was operated by many men and could fire larger projectiles such as stones or large spheres. Also there were individual snipers who used a smaller version of the ballista, it was called the scorpion. Different versions of the crossbow were made in (circa 1000 A.D.), they were called arbalests using steel prods, they also required a cranequin or a windlass to cock. Crossbows were famous or infamous for the job they did during medival warfare. Crossbows released more kinetic energy and required less training. The end of medival crossbows started during the Battle of Agincourt in 1415. English won the war against the french mainly because of the English Longbow. Its range was superior to the crossbow and it shot 12 shots per minute and its accuracy was far better. Then gunpowder came, Most men brought crossbows with them but they only used it in dire situations. Today crossbows are used for sporting events and games. The crossbow has been replaced in warfare by guns.
The crossbow was a weapon like the bow and a rifle put together. Similar to a bow it had a fast moving string to launch projectiles. Like a rifle it also had a trigger and a stock. Middle Ages crossbows had the same parts. They had a bow mounted onto wooden tillers or stocks. When you shot the crossbow, the arrow travels down through the groove or notch in the tiller. During the Middle Ages there were two different types of crossbows. Both crossbows needed a trigger to release. Roman crossbow systems used a rotating nut held in place by a lever. When the trigger was pulled the locking string let go of the sear and let the nut rotate releasing the string sending the projectile flying. Chinese crossbows were similar except they used lots of hooks and levers. When they fired the trigger it let go of the sear releasing the locking lever as well as the string which fired the projectile.
How Does The Crossbow Work
Is the crossbow still around
Yes the crossbow is still around today. It is not used for what it was used for in the early and middle ages but they are still around. The crossbow is more advanced and instead of shooting bolts it shoots arrows and quarrels. Today people use the crossbow for hunting. In most states they let you hunt game like deer and smaller animals. People also enjoy using the crossbow for target practice. Crossbows are used in competitions like archery.
We know Asia and Europe both eventually made a version of the crossbow. But the question that has not been solved is who invented it first. Some people believe that it started in in the neighboring cultures in China and spread out. In ancient Greece records show early use of the crossbow around the time Asia started showing evidence of crossbows. It is just one of those those questions we do not know.
Due to how there is not enough evidence on whether or not the crossbow really was built in Asia or Europe, there invention dates will be on when the separate continents built there own model. For Asia the first textual evidence was the hand held crossbow dating back as early as the 4th century. Hand held crossbows have also been found with the Terracotta Army in the in the tomb Qin Shihuang (r. 221-210 B.C.). Greece's first date for crossbows were in 5th century B.C. Diodorus Siculus described the invention as a mechanical arrow firing catapult (katapeltikon) by a greek task force in 399 B.C.. That weapon was inspired by a earlier hand crossbow called the gastraphetes (belly shooter), which could store more energy than the Greek bows.
The crossbow has impacted the world in many ways. The crossbow was more accurate than a bow because when the string was pulled back it stayed put because of its locking system.With a bow you had to draw back the string and keep the string back making the bows accuracy less accurate. The crossbow had more kinetic energy than the bow meaning it could shoot reasonably farther. The crossbow was also a weapon a inexperienced soldier could use. If fired at a knight in armor it would easily penetrate him, killing the knight. The crossbow was also cheaper than a longbow or a bow, most people could not afford to buy a longbow mostly the rich only had the money for it.
How Has The Crossbow Impacted The World
How Has China/Greece Contributed To The World
Chinese culture has contributed to the world with many other inventions, some of which include gun powder, paper making, printing, Chinese medicine along with the crossbow. Many of these Chinese cultural inventions made a huge impact in the world.

Greek culture has contributed to the world w/other inventions such as the gear, screw, rotary mills, casting techniques, also water technology and mining. Also they helped develop surveying and advanced math. All of these were used in different construction related activities that were credited to their culture. And therefore has contributed to the world.
"A brief history of the crossbow.." - Free Online Library. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://www.thefreelibrary.com/A+brief+history+of+the+crossbow.-a0312403277>.
"Ancient Greek technology." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greek_technology>.
"Crossbow." Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 22 Oct. 2013. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crossbow>.
"How Crossbows Work." HowStuffWorks. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://science.howstuffworks.com/crossbow.htm>.
"Inventions of Ancient China." Ancient Inventions. N.p., n.d. Web. 22 Oct. 2013. <http://cultural-china.com/chinaWH/features/chinaoverview/index.html>.
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