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Methods in Teaching ESL
Transcript of Methods in Teaching ESL
Originated in Canada in the 1960's
The regular school curriculum is taught using the target language
The foreign language is the vehicle for instruction, not the subject
These programs aim to allow students to develop a high level of language proficiency, develop positive attitudes toward those who speak the language, and gain content knowledge
Total Physical Response
developed by Dr. James J. Asher
believes that as in L1 a student should listen and comprehend before production
grammar is taught inductively
learning is enhanced through physical responses
focused on the imperative verb form; this is thought to mirror the speech of adults to young children
a physical action can act as a stimulus with language production as a response
believed to foster a low anxiety, high learning environment
reduction of stress and a game-like atmosphere is key to the method
errors corrected through repetition and self-correction
developed by Bulgarian psychotherapist Georgi Lozanov
the student is expected to be in a totally passive, infant-like state
the method seeks to eliminate psychological barriers to learning
applied positive suggestion and desuggestive learning
two intentions: to utilize the power of suggestion and to unlearn bad habits that restrict spontaneous learning
music is normally played in the classroom
the teacher has absolute authority, but sets a pleasant atmosphere by using a reassuring tone of voice and making learning fun
believes that language is primarily a means of making meaning
concentrates on authentic language usage and asking students to do meaningful tasks using the target language
emphasis is placed on successful completion of the tasks rather than the accuracy of linguistic forms
tasks might have a real-life link or a pedagogical purpose specific to the classroom
useful for developing fluency and student confidence
proponents of this method believe that realia should be used to support the task whenever possible
views interaction as the means and end of learning a language
key names: Widdowson, Wilkins, Candlin, Finocchario
typical activities include role plays, interviews, games, surveys, and pair/group work
errors are seen as natural outcomes and the focus is on real language used in actual social contexts
the teacher is seen as a facilitator instead of a director
Task Based Learning
ExC-ELL is a system of instructional strategies for teaching reading, writing, and vocabulary to ELLs to ensure that their skills align with Common Core state standards. One key component of ExC-ELL is the three tiers of vocabulary:
1. Basic words that ELLs need to communicate, read, and write. These should be taught.
2. Sophisticated, information processing words. May have multiple meanings. These include transition words and connectors.
3. Subject-specific words that link to content disciplines. Infrequently used academic words.
In ExC-ELL teachers should always pre-teach vocabulary before reading and allow for oral and written summary post-reading. ExC-ELL also suggests reading and writing strategies such as partner reading, roundtable, and writearound.
The Lexical Approach
vocabulary is prioritized based on the idea that it as an important aspect of language
vocabulary is taught in chunks that are learned and used as single items
maintains that students are able to see language patterns, or grammar, when they are taught in this way
focuses on the teaching of fixed expressions that occur frequently in communication
Community Language Learning
developed by Charles A. Curran
students collaborate to develop the aspects of a language they want to learn
the teacher is viewed as a counselor/knower and the learner as a student/client
the class is totally student generated and there is no traditional syllabus
the teacher corrects by modeling
the teacher should make students secure and guide reflection
this method requires a proactive, reflective learner
also called counseling learning because there is room for personal learning conflicts, like anger and anxiety, to be addressed by the teacher
each course is a unique experience and there is no textbook
created by Ashley Hastings and significantly influenced by the work of Stephen Krashen
content-based and skills-focused language teaching
develops one language skill at a time with comprehensible input and authentic materials
Howard Garner put forth the Multiple Intelligences model in 1983, which proposed eight intelligences
intelligence types include: linguistic, logical/mathematical, spatial, musical, bodily/kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalist
language classes and activities should be adapted to different learning types
pedagogy is most effective when different types of learners are acknowledged and accommodated
this approach is increasingly popular and has been accepted by many teachers
WIDA is a nationwide consortium that advocates for the language development and academic achievement of linguistically diverse students. 34 states are currently members of the WIDA consortium. WIDA has a set of standards, provides opportunities for teacher collaboration, and creates popular assessments for language learners. WIDA's standards are:
1. Social and instructional language
2. The language of language arts
3. The language of mathematics
4. The language of science
5. The language of social studies
WIDA concentrates on what language learners can do instead of what they can't. It also strives to make this focus apparent in all of the materials and standards it produces. Standardized tests manufactured by WIDA include ACCESS for ELLs (1 and 2.0), PODER, and W-APT.
based on behaviorist psychology and structural linguistics
its signature is the use of dialogues and drills
key names: Fries, Lado, Brooks, Moulton
language should be learned through a system of reinforcement - correct usage must receive positive feedback and incorrect usage must receive negative feedback
foreign language learning is a process of mechanical habit formation; students should overlearn to create automiticity
speech is seen as more basic and written language is introduced later
grammar is learned through language drills, which enable learners to produce correct analogies
eventually criticized because students did not develop true linguistic competence
began in Germany and France
key names: L. Sauveur
refrains from using L1 and only uses the target language; believed that the use of L1 could be avoided through demonstration and action
L2 acquisition was modeled on L1 acquisition
speaking and listening are emphasized
grammar is taught inductively
correct pronunciation and grammar are important
only teaches everyday vocabulary and sentences
used by the Berlitz chain of language schools
required a highly skilled teacher
The Natural Approach
developed by Stephen Krashen and Tracy Terrell in the late 70's and early 80's
aims to create natural language acquisition in the classroom
tries to create a stress free environment for language learning
reduces conscious grammar study and error correction
students are encouraged to absorb large amounts of language input before they produce language
contrasts acquisition and learning; acquisition is an unconscious process, while learning involves conscious knowledge of rules; this method prioritizes acquisition
includes the input hypothesis (i + 1), which states that input should be slightly beyond the current level of comprehension
Situational Language Teaching
rooted in German philosophy
dominant from 1840-1940
L2 study was thought to strengthen the mind
focused on language study and translation for the purpose of being able to read
language learning consists of memorizing rules and facts
little to no attention paid to speaking and listening
accuracy is important; it is thought to reflect a student's moral value
the student's native language is the medium of instruction
may still be useful in situations where text is the main object of instruction and little practical use of language is necessary
The Direct Method is a reaction to the much practiced Grammar Translation Method. Those
who practiced the Natural Method believed that the Grammar Translation Method was an unnatural means of
language learning. Learning should instead follow the pattern of
began in the 1930's
associated with the linguists Harold Palmer and A.S. Hornby
sought to create a scientific language teaching approach based on a structural view of language and a behaviorist theory of learning
speech was seen as central to language and structure as central to speech
emphasis on vocabulary, especially the core 2,000 words that frequently occur in written langauge
grammar is taught from simple to complex
reading and writing are introduced once vocabulary and grammar are developed
the target language is the language of the class
developed by Caleb Gattegno
learning is facilitated if the learner discovers and creates rather than remembers and repeats
a distinguishing feature is the use of Cuisenaire rods, which can be used for everything from teaching simple commands to representing abstract objects
the method also uses Fidel charts, in which each sound has a unique color
the teacher interferes with student learning and should be suboordinated; the teacher remains silent as much as possible
errors show where things are unclear
vocabulary is critical and vocabulary choice is important
learners should be cooperative,not competitive
The Communicative Approach can be viewed as a reaction to Audiolingualism, Grammar Translation, and behavior psychology more generally because it views errors as essential to learning. It shares this view with the Silent Way.
SIOP is an empirically-validated approach to teaching that works for all students, including English language learners. The model consists of eight components which encompass thirty features. The eight components of SIOP are:
1. Lesson Preparation
2. Building Background
3. Comprehensible Input
6. Practice and Application
7. Lesson Delivery
8. Review and Assessment
A successful SIOP lesson must include all of these components. When successful, SIOP increases student achievement, improves academic content skills and language skills, delivers results aligned to district objectives, and prepares students to become college and career ready.
LinguaFolio is a formative tool for language assessment used in ESL and World Language classrooms. It allows students to track their progress in language learning using positive, can-do statements. It is available in online and print formats. Both formats consist of the following 3 components:
where formal assessments and student's self assessments are documented.
where the self-assessment checklists, information about a student's language background, and intercultural activities are recorded.
where samples of a student's work over time are documented.
LinguaFolio is powerful because it allows ESL teachers, content teacher's and administrators to discuss students' skills using common language. It also allows students to take ownership of their language learning and transition into independent learners.
Ultimately, use of the direct method declined because its strict insistence on use of the L2 was occasionally inefficient. In many cases, translation would have made better use of instructional time. Because of this, the Direct Method was largely abandoned in the United States and Grammar Translation remained popular until the 1940's. The Direct Method retained more popularity in Europe
Situational Language Teaching was developed largely to improve upon the Direct Method. However, it did not abandon the Direct Method entirely. It also used the target language as the language of the classroom. SLT also rejects the abstract language teaching of the Direct Method, but it doesn't refuse to teach grammar entirely.
SLT anticipates the delayed introduction of reading and writing that Audiolingualism also uses. In SLT, this is explained by the need to acquire a lexical and grammtical base first. Audiolingualism extends this argument by saying that speech is the primary mode of language naturally.
The teacher subordinated approach of the Silent Way anticipated a similar classroom structure in later methods including Community Language Learning and the Communicative Approach.
The notion of lowering psychological barriers is a precursor to the modern idea of the affective filter. The importance of a positive psychological orientation is evident in WIDA and LinguaFolio's insistence on a "can do" attitude.
Grammar Translation and Audiolingualsim share an emphasis on accuracy that remains in many classrooms. Students should not learn "bad habits," according to many. Grammar Translation focused on errors in writing and believed they reflected poor character. In contrast, Audiolingualism focuses on spoken errors and believes that they may lead to dangerous, bad linguistic habits.
Almost every later method seems to be responding to Grammar Translation in some way. Community Language Teaching and TPR reject the high stress placed on students in Grammar Translation. Other methods, such as Audiolingualism and Language Immersion believe that using the L1 to teach is a
Audiolingualism shares the belief with The Natural Approach that students should absorb language before they produce it. In Audiolingualism, this is a result of the structural linguistic tenet that speech is the primary mode of language. In the Natural Approach, it is an attempt to mirror L1 acquisition. In their infancy, children can understand words before they can produce them.
Language Immersion and SIOP are used together in some settings in contemporary schools. ELLs may be placed in sheltered content classes conducted entirely in English, but with special support to develop their English skills as they learn.
The low-anxiety, game-like approach of TPR can be seen in suggested ExC-ELL strategies. For instance, in activities like Roundtable and Writearound, the pressure of the final product is spread across the entire group. While not TPR, these lessons are more active than a traditional one.
Grammar is taught inductively, as in TPR, the Direct Method, and the Audiolingual Method. All of these methods share a desire to make L2 acquistion more like L1 acquistion.
Although the degree of student ownership fostered in CLT classrooms is nearly impossible in public schools, the legacy of CLT is evident in the desire for students to take ownership of their own language learning. This is evident in the structure of LinguaFolio in which students must track their own
Incorporates the idea of comprehensible input used in the Focal Skills method.
The idea of multiple intelligneces can be though of as drawing from nearly every method. For instance, TPR type activities may work for those with kinesthetic intelligence, while those with interpersonal intelligence may do well with Communicative approaches.
Shares a focus on practical, everyday vocabulary and language with The Direct Method. Both methods believe that language taught should be applicable to the student's life.
The Lexical Approach shares a focus on vocabulary with ExC-ELL, in which the three tiers of vocabulary play a central role. ExC-ELL's focus on academic language distinguishes it from the lexical approach.
SIOP balances elements of the teacher demand and student focus of earlier methods. Like the Direct Method, teachers must be highly qualified and reflective to practice SIOP. However, the "interaction" component demands that students participate in their own learning, as does The
WIDA can be seen as an extension of earlier methods like Task-Based Learning and Situational Language Teaching, which insisted that language taught have application to a student's life. However, WIDA acknowledges that "practical" extends beyond instructional and social and must include content language as well.
Although the approaches are very different, evidence of Situational Language Teaching can be seen in LinguaFolio. The older method presents grammar in structured way, from simple to complex. LinguaFolio allows students to track their language development in the same way.