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Chemistry of Life

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Mainou Yang

on 4 January 2013

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Transcript of Chemistry of Life

Elements and Molecules *Most of the living systems are made of complex molecules like carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, phosphorous and sulfur *Carbon is the backbone to all living things, Without carbon there will be no organic molecule. Carbon is to produce energy and for support. Vocab ATP- an energy that transport energy to cells Biology *C, H, O, N, P, S is know as the six most common elements in a organic molecules The Chemistry of Life *The most common complex molecules that make up living organisms are carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nuclei acids. *65% of your body is H2O, water is organic it doesn't contain carbon. Structure And Purpose *The four main categories of organic molecules that make up living things are *Carbohydrates are built from sugars *Proteins are built from amino acids *Nuclei Acids are built from nucleotides *Lipids are built from glycerol and fatty acids *All living organisms are made of carbohydrate, lipids. proteins, and nuclei acids. Carbohydrate and lipids has many carbon hydrogen bond that keeps energy. But ATP energy has to be transfer to be usable to the cells. Carbohydrates- a group of organic compounds that includes sugars, starches, cellulose, and gums and serves as a major energy source Carbon- found in every living thing, one of the most common elements. It major role is to have quick energy. Cellulose- the cell wall of a plants and vegetables Condensation- Type if reaction in 2 elements Dehydration Synthesis- take out H2O DNA- Deoxyribo nuclei acids is an example of nuclei acids Carbon- a substance or aspect of something, especially one that is essential or characteristic. enzymes- acts like protein and help to control metabolic reactions in organisms glucose- a simple sugar that is important to the living organism its also a carbohydrate hemoglobin- the oxygen-carrying pigment of red blood cells hydrolysis-adding water Hormones-a naturally occurring substance secreted by specialized cells that affects the metabolism or behavior of other cells- vocab inorganic-molecules that doesn't exist on earth lipids-A fatty or waxy organic compound that can't be destroy by water macromolecules- complex molecule, such as nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids molecules- a small particle or substance monomer-only one bond monosaccharides- the monomer of carbohydrate nitrogen- one of the most important complex molecules. That makes up proteins and nuclei acids. nuclei acids- carries genetic info. in a cell, one of the 4 most important macromolecules organic molecule-molecules that is usually found in a living thing oxygen-physiological processes, such as in cellular respiration phospholipids-they serve as a major structural component of most biological membranes its an example of lipids phosphorus- its found predominately in bones and adenosine triposphate polymer- many monomer joining together to form a bond polysaccharides- A complex carbohydrate composed of a chain of monosaccharides joined together proteins- builds muscles and movements RNA- ribo nucleic acids starch- a polysaccharides of carbohydrate Whoo! that was a lot of Chemistry
Life *Cells carry out the many functions needed to sustain life. They grow and divide, thereby producing more cells. Food is used to provide energy for the work that cells do and is a source of the molecular building blocks from which needed materials are assembled Cells Characteristic of Life Cell Structure and function *Most of eukaryotic cells has mostly nucleus, cell membrane, chloroplast, mitochondria, cytoplasm and golgi apparatus. Most prokaryotic cells has only nucleus, cytoplasm, cell wall and ribosomes and example of a prokaryotic cell is bacteria. eukaryotic prokaryotic *There's different things that plant cell and animal cell is different. the only thing that plant cell has that animal cell doesn't have is a cell wall and a chloroplast Plant Cell Animal Cell All organisms are composed of vells from just one cell to many cells. Water accounts for more than two-thirds of the weight of a cell, whcih gives cell many of their properties. In multicellur organisms, specialized cells perform specialized functions. Organs and organ systems are composed of cells and function is similar in all living organisms The 8 characteristic of life 1. living things must contain one or more cells
2. Reproduction
3. Growth and development
4. Obtain and use energy
5. Respond to the stimulate
6. Maintain homeostasis
7. Based on the universal genetic code
8. As group change over time As a group change over time Cellular Transport A cell membrane is a path that will only allow certain things through it.The membrane is made up of phospholipid bilayer. Interspersed within a bilayer are ion channels, glycoproteins etc which selectively allow things to enter the cell. Active transport-The movement of ions or molecules across a cell membrane into a region of higher concentration, assisted by enzymes and requiring energy. Vocabulary Autotroph- An organism that is able to form nutritional organic substances from simple inorganic substances such as carbon dioxide. Bacteria-A member of a large group of unicellular microorganisms lacking organelles and an organized nucleus, including some that can cause disease. Biological evolution-Evolution (also known as biological, genetic or organic evolution) is the change in the inherited traits of a population of organisms Cell membrane-The semipermeable membrane surrounding the cytoplasm of a cell. Cell wall-A rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher. Cellular differentiation-In developmental biology, cellular differentiation is the process by which a less specialized cell becomes a more specialized cell type. Chloroplast-A plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place. Chromosome-A threadlike structure of nucleic acids and protein found in the nucleus of most living cells, carrying genetic information in the form. Cytoplasm-he material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus. Diffusion-The spreading of something more widely.
The action of spreading the light from a light source evenly so as to reduce glare and harsh shadows. DNA-Deoxyribonucleic acid, a self-replicating material present in nearly all living organisms as the main constituent of chromosomes. It is...
The fundamental and distinctive characteristics of someone or somthing, esp. when regarded as unchangeable. Eukaryote-An organism consisting of a cell or cells in which the genetic material is DNA in the form of chromosomes contained within a distinct. Golgi apparatus-A complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular transport. Mitochondria-An organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. Nucleus-The central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth.
The positively charged central core of an atom, containing most of its mass. Organelle-Any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell. Osmosis-The tendency of molecules of a solvent to pass through a semipermeable membrane from a less concentrated solution into a more concentrat...
The process of gradual or unconscious assimilation of ideas, knowledge, etc. Producer-A person, company, or country that makes, grows, or supplies goods or commodities for sale.
A person or thing that makes or causes something Prokaryote-A microscopic single-celled organism that has neither a distinct nucleus with a membrane nor other specialized organelles, including the. Protein-Any of a class of nitrogenous organic compounds that consist of large molecules composed of one or more long chains of amino acids and...
Such substances collectively, esp. as a dietary component. Ribosome-
A minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. Vacuole-A space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.
A small cavity or space in tissue, esp. in nervous tissue as the result of disease. Virus-An infective agent that typically consists of a nucleic acid molecule in a protein coat, is too small to be seen by light microscopy,
An infection or disease caused by such an agent. Cell function- The function of the cell. Balance of Life -Transformation of matter and energy in cells -Vocabulary Transformation of Matter and Energy in Cells Vocabulary * In multicelluar organism, cells are specialized to carry specific functions like transport, reproduction and energy transformation * The common functions of the major systems of a human body is; digestive System, respiratory system, circulatory system, excretory system, muscular system, skeletal system, and the integumentary system. Digestive system
Circulatory and Digestive
distributes nutrients throughout the body and they both breaks down food with C02.
Muscular and Digestive
Muscles makes up the stomach and intestines to help break down and move food. The digestive system breaks down food into small molecules that the body can absorb and use later Respiratory System Transport oxygen, nutrients, and carbon dioxide around the body Digestive and Respiratory
Tract the function, and vice versa and to provide energy to body cells
Circulatory and Respiratory
transport oxygen from the lungs to blood Circulatory System transport blood and oxygen from the lungs to the various tissues of the body. The heart pumps the blood throughout the body. Respiratory and Circulatory
respiratory system gets oxygen into circulatory to take oxygen through the blood stream or the veins Excretory and circulatory
Excretory carries waste products from source to the final oxygen which works for excretion Excretory System Removes excess materials from body to maintain homeostasis Excretory and respiratory
respiratory helps the lungs get rid of carbon dioxide and water vapor Excretory and digestive
digestive system breaks down the food and then the excretory system takes all the non-usable things and out of the body Muscular System Protects the body from external damage and helps regulate temperature. Muscular and Skeletal
skeletal system is covered with muscles that enable us to move Muscular and Nervous system
provide muscles and brain with info about the body position Skeletal System Gives body shape, support, and protection
and functions
in body movement Muscular and Skeletal
muscles are attached to various parts if skeleton Muscular and Circulatory
The bone marrow is inside your bone and it form's new red blood cells and it remove any dirty blood cells. Integumentary System Particpate in gas exchange, takes oxygen and eliminates carbon dioxide. Respiratory and integumentary
lungs send oxygen to parts of the integumentary system Digestive and Integumentary
The Digestive System extracts nutrients that are carried into the bloodstream and sent to the integumentary system. anatomical characteristic- structural composition in relation to tissues histology and anatomical planes behavioral response- anything that an organism does involving action and response to stimulation cellular functions- the function of a cell, plant cell or a animal cell cellular communication-A cellular mobile communications system uses a large number of low-power wireless transmitters to create cells cellular differentiation- The normal process by which a less specialized cell develops or matures to possess a more distinct form and function. cellular regulation- encompasses all the functions cells carry out to maintain homeostasis, in particular their responses to extracellular signals cellular response- The binding of chemical signals to their corresponding receptors induces events within the cell that ultimately change its behaviour embryo- the young animal, especially of a mammal, in the early stages of development , in humans up to the end of the second month. environmental influence- the social and
cultural forces that shape the life of a person
or a population enzyme- a various proteins, as pepsin, originating from living cells and capable of producing certain chemical changes in organic substances by action, as in digestion. equilibrium gills- the respiratory organ of aquatic animals, as fish, that breathe oxygen dissolved in water. homeostasis- keeping things maintain or balance out hormone- functions of specifically receptive organs or tissues when transported to them by the body fluids. lungs- either of the two saclike respiratory organs in the thorax of humans and the higher vertebrates. membranes- A thin pliable layer of tissue covering surfaces, enveloping a part, lining a cavity, or separating or connecting structures or organs. natural selection- the process by which forms of life having traits that better enable them to adapt to specific environmental pressures, as predators, changes in climate, or competition for food or mates neuron- a specialized, impulse-conducting cell that is the functional unit of the nervous system, consisting of the cell body pH- A figure expressing the acidity
or alkalinity of a solution on a
logarithmic scale on which 7 is
neutral, physiological change- The reason your body undergoes so many changes during a panic attack is that the sympathetic part of the nervous system is upregulated regulatory response- Behavioral and physiological adaptations an organism makes in response to exposure to environmental conditions structural specialization- Adaptation, as of an organ or organism, to a specific function or environment Inheritance of Life hi
+Mitosis and Meiosis + DNA + Protein Synthesis + Inherited Traits Mitosis -Do you wonder how we grow and develop? We grow and develop by a process of mitosis, which is part of the cell cycle Mitosis- cell division that divides 2 daughter cells starting with the 5 phases of mitosis:
1. Prophase- chromosomes become visible and coil.

*But before the cell division starts, each chromosomes replicated its self into a sister chromatid this is called DNA replication The 2 centrioles helps line up the spindle. 2. Metaphase- The chromosomes line up together in the center informations
- http://www.edupic.net/cells.htm

-http://www.edmodo.com/file/view-crocodoc-new-window?uuid=4678e8cc-9537-4db2-be47-b669fd720e38&file_id=43280050 3. Anaphase- the chromatid separates and become its own chromosomes 4. Telophase- the chromosomes starts to uncoil, and 2 nuclei are form 5. Cytokinesis- the cytoplasm splits and now 2 new cells are form which also is called diploid + chromosomes- made of DNA and protein; usually found in the nucleus. Each person contains 46 chromosomes in their body. + cell division- the dividing of cells usually through mitosis and meiosis + duplication of genes- the copy of genes Meiosis In order for meiosis to happen it needs gametes( sperms and eggs) to combine genes. This is how genes are formed through meiosis: 1. Prophase |- chromatids coil
2. Metaphase |- chromatids line up homologous in the center, they exchange DNA
3. Anaphase |- the chromatid splits
4. Telophase |- 2 nuclei starts to form
5. Cytokinesis |- cytoplasm splits and 4 cells are form in this case its called haploid 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Meiosis- each gene from a half of two of sister chromatids crossing over- when the chromatid line up in homologous and one of the chromatid cross over to the other side + some mutation can be pass on to offspring because, its in the gene that was transferred to produce the offspring (sex cells) + mutation gene can be predict by a punnett square + Gene mutation in the cell can be uncontrolled cell division in this case its called cancer Mutations progeny- different gene from the parents to the offspring recombination- crossing over of DNA or new gene combination sex chromosomes- to figure out the sex of an organism Asexual Vs. sexual asexual- is complex, tiny, one cell, and only one parent. They divide every cell by binary fission. There's no identical traits. ameoba Echinoderms sexual- multiple cells, usually 2 parent (GAMETES) cell division by mitosis and meiosis. koala polar bear Examples examples deletion- the lose on nuclei chromosomes genetic variation- the difference of a gene jumping genes- how genes can hope back and fourth to make final appearance kayotype- appearance of chromosomes in the nuclei cell
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