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The Inconvenient Indian. CH.5,6
Transcript of The Inconvenient Indian. CH.5,6
1969, Chico State University, CA- 60 incoming students marked their ethnicity as "Indians."
The registration office later found out that they were not Indians, but were whites who supported their cause.
More History of the AIM
The AIM was formed in the Summer of 1968 in Minneapolis.
The AIM consisted of a poorly managed group of men and women who protested different injustices.
The protests often turned violent and didn't give the AIM a good name.
American Indian Movement
Various denominations were responsible for many of the assimilation efforts. examples of those efforts were "Praying towns" and a race between denominations to establish churches and residential schools that were later embrace by the government on the reservations
The role of the Church and Government
In the early years of settler and indian interactions, if assimilation was unsuccessful, then extermination was considered the only option. it was not known yet as genocide since that term wasn't coined until 1944 but as a byproduct of Manifest Destiny a term struck in the 1840's.
Assimilation or Extermination
In Chapters five and six Thomas King focuses less on the dead indian trope and more on the killing of the dead indian. he begins by going into detail about the assimilation process and the different roles played by the church and government. King then talks about the various indian movements throughout history.
The Inconvenient Indian. CH.5,6
"We are Sorry"
"Like Cowboys and Indians"
On November 20, 1969, 89 indians set sail from a town outside of San Francisco and took over the federal prison known as Alcatraz, Or "The Rock."
Not The First Time There
Oral stories talk about Alcatraz as a place where people would gather eggs.
It was a refuge for Indians from the Franciscan monks
In 1895 nineteen Hopi Indians were sent to prison on Alcatraz
In 1964, a group of Lakota went to "The Rock" for a peaceful demonstration, but were removed before the day was up.
In the End
The occupation lasted nineteen months and got massive media attention and support from the public and celebrities such as Jane Fonda and Marlin Brando. Thomas King argues that the occupation was a success turning Alcatraz into a symbol for Native resistance and pride.
The Trail of Broken Treaties
-AIM along with National Indian Brotherhood, National Indian Youth Council plus five others groups
-traveled from the west coast to Washington, DC to lobby for Native sovereignty and treaty rights
-call attention to the problems of poverty on reserves and reservations
-Arrived in DC in early November
-Marched on the Bureau of Indian Affairs building and took it over
-For the next 7 days, frustrated Indians ransacked the building
In an effort to assimilate Indians into Christianity, early Puritans established prayer towns, prayer towns were situated outside of puritan towns and acted as halfway houses for Natives who were looking to convert to Christianity. when King Phillips War began in 1675 the converted Indians who had pledged there loyalty to the Puritans were seen as a threat and were shipped off to Deer Island in Boston Harbor which was essentially North Americas first concentration camp, even when the war ended in 1676 the "praying Indians" were left on Deer Island for an additional year
The race to establish churches on reservations
Residential schools began popping up in Canada in the 1840's. and by 1932 there were more then eighty schools in operation. sixty percent of the schools were run by the catholic church with another thirty percent run by the Anglican church. the rest were run by other protestant denominations. the goal of the schools was to separate children from there culture early on so that they could be more easily assimilated. in 1850, attendance at residential schools became compulsory for all children from the ages of six to fifteen. there was no opting out, and noncompliance could result in prison time.
conditions in schools in both the US. and Canada were abysmal. overcrowding, disease, Sexual and physical abuse as well as inadequate clothing and nutrition were commonplace.
Six Point "Civilizing" Plan
George Washington and Henry Knox believed in the potential of Indians to become Whites
The plan called for impartial justice towards Indians, the development of "educational" experiments to civilize Indian society, and for the prosecution and punishment of anyone who violated Native Rights.
2008 Prime Minister Stephen Harper stood up in the House of Commons and gave a heartfelt speech broadcast on national television
2009 President Barack Obama signed an official apology resolution into law
Canadian apology was only about the abuse that Native people endured in the residential school system
Since Barack Obama has signed the apology, nothing else has been done with it. There wasn't even a Public Ceremony.
King on apologies
King states that he isn't very charitable on the apologies and openly jokes about them in the text
He does however acknowledge that neither country was under and obligations to apologize, and yet, they did
King isn't sure that the apologies given by the US and Canada to the Native people in North America were entirely sincere