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Malaria

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by

Bashir Nayimi

on 8 June 2017

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Transcript of Malaria

Malaria: An infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites from the Plasmodium family that can be transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito or by a contaminated needle or transfusion. Falciparum malaria is the most deadly type.
Types of Malaria
Plasmodium falciparum: is responsible for the majority of malaria deaths globally
Plasmodium vivax: is the second most significant species and is prevalent in Southeast Asia
Plasmodium malariae represent only a small percentage of infections.
Plasmodium ovale
Plasmodium knowlesi
Description of Malaria
Symptoms
The symptoms of malaria include:
chills, fever, sweats, muscle aches and headache that recur every few days.There can also be vomiting, diarrhea, coughing, and yellowing (jaundice) of the skin and eyes. Persons with malaria can develop bleeding problems, shock, kidney and liver failure, central nervous system problems, coma, and a person can die cause of malaria.
Transmission
Treatments
chloroquine
atovaquone-proguanil
artemether-lumefantrin
mefloquine
quinine
quinidine
doxycycline
clindamycin
artesunate
Statistics
Nearly half of the world's population is at risk of malaria. In 2015, there were roughly 212 million malaria cases and an estimated 429 000 malaria deaths. Increased prevention and control measures have led to a 29% reduction in malaria mortality rates globally since 2010. Sub-Saharan Africa continues to carry a disproportionately high share of the global malaria burden. In 2015, the region was home to 90% of malaria cases and 92% of malaria deaths.


Malaria
Malaria transmission most often occurs through the bite of an Anopheles mosquito. No other types of mosquitoes are known to transmit this disease. This type of mosquito becomes infected with one of the four Plasmodium parasites that cause malaria in humans, through a previous blood meal from an infected person
Prevention
It's not possible to avoid mosquito bites completely, but the less you're bitten, the less likely you are to get malaria.
To avoid being bitten:
Stay somewhere that has effective air conditioning and screening on doors and windows. If this isn't possible, make sure doors and windows close properly.
If you're not sleeping in an air-conditioned room, sleep under an intact mosquito net that's been treated with insecticide.
Use insect repellent on your skin and in sleeping environments. Remember to reapply it frequently. The most effective repellents contain diethyltoluamide (DEET) and are available in sprays, roll-ons, sticks and creams.
Wear light, loose-fitting trousers rather than shorts, and wear shirts with long sleeves. This is particularly important during early evening and at night, when mosquitoes prefer to feed.
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