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A Closer Look at Chocolate

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by

Caitlin Hunt

on 12 December 2014

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Transcript of A Closer Look at Chocolate

Chocolate Liquor
Cocoa butter
Sugar
Lecithin
Vanilla

White Chocolate
All of the ingredients in milk chocolate, minus the cocoa solids
Other flavorings
Milk Chocolate
All of the ingredients in dark chocolate
Milk solids (powdered milk)
Contains 10% cocoa liquor, and at least 12% milk solids.
Dark Chocolate
Fat Bloom
Starting With The Basics: Kinds of Chocolate
What can be wrong with your chocolate?
Tempering
A Closer Look at Chocolate
General ingredients:
Chocolate Liquor: Cocoa beans with the shells removed that have been fermented, roasted and ground into a liquid. Made up of cocoa butter and cocoa solids (Both naturally in bean)
Cocoa Butter: Natural fat from the cocoa bean
Sugar
Lecithin: An emulsifier, often made from soy. (helps blend ingredients)
Vanilla
May include:
Milk: (For Milk chocolate)
Fruits, Nuts and other Add-ins


Theobromine (C7H8N4O2)
Serotonin (C10H12N2O)
Appearance
greasy
streaky
light colored spots
Cause
The main cause of fat bloom is incorrect tempering
Appearance
spotted coating
white
gray
rubs off
Cause
storage issues
exposure to moisture

Sugar Bloom
The Six Different Forms of Cocoa Butter Crystalline
Form V is the most desirable form in chocolate as it combines firmness, good snap, and a melting temperature close to body temperature.
Form VI is to be avoided as its melting zone makes it harder to melt in the mouth, and the V to VI form transition leads to the unpleasant fat bloom effect.
Sugar Bloom is caused when water comes in contact with the chocolate, dissolving the sugar on the chocolate's surface. As the water dries, the dissolved sugar crystallizes and precipitates onto the surface of the chocolate, and the resulting small sugar crystals give the chocolate a dusty appearance.
Tempering is the process of raising and lowering chocolates temperature
Goal - to have crystals in form V
Don't heat over 92
form V crystals melt at 94
Temperature, time, agitation
Polymorphism-
If the chocolate wasn't properly refined (which reduces the size of its sugar crystals) during the chocolate-making process, the larger crystals could absorb moisture more readily, allowing sugar bloom to more easily form.
What is Refining?
Refining is the final grinding of all particles in the liquid chocolate together to produce an even, extremely smooth texture in which no grit can be detected on one's tongue or pallet.
The Causes of Sugar Bloom
the ability of solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure
So what are Theobromine and Serotonin, and what do they have to do with chocolate?
Theobromine is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant
Serotonin is a neurotransmitter that can improve mood, enhance sleep and reduce the sensation of pain. Dark chocolate can raise serotonin levels in the brain.
How does all of this relate to what we studied in Chemistry?
The melting points of the six crystalline structures of cocoa butter relate to phase changes happening during the process of tempering, and also the melting of the chocolate in the mouth relates to thermodynamics.
The precipitation of sugar crystals on the surface of the chocolate relates to the solubility of a substance, and whether a solution will dissolve, or create a precipitate.
Thank you for watching our presentation! Please enjoy your free chocolate!!
Full transcript