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Intercultural communication

Culture's Consequences in Marketing, Communication and Design Processes
by

rebecca pera

on 20 March 2012

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Transcript of Intercultural communication

The aim is to equip students with the tools to handle the challenges and opportunities of multiculturalismDouble click anywhere & add an idea “Much of our difficulty with people in other countries stems from the fact that so little is known about cross-cultural communication.”

~ Edward T. Hall ~ Intercultural Communication "Specific" Cultures and "Diffused" Cultures
How separate we keep our private and working lives?
INDIVIDUALISTIC CULTURES VS
COLLECTIVISTIC CULTURES personal initiative
personal development & achievement
personal responsability
personal recognition

group goals prevail
the group is more important
success must be reached togethere
the single should never be perceived as better

DEFINITION
In individualist societies, ties between individuals are loose, personal freedom is valued and individual decision-making is encouraged. On the contrary, in collectivist societies, in-group ties are strong, following societal norms is valued, and group decision-making is encouraged DIRECT COMMUNICATION VS
INDIRECT COMMUNICATION Direct:
straightforward
more aggressive
efficient and faster Indirect:
formal
ambiguous
diffused cultures (harmony - don't want to offend)
LOW-CONTEXT CULTURES VS HIGH CONTEXT CULTURES DEFINITION
Low context cultures, such as Germany or the United States make much less extensive use of such similar experiences and expectations to communicate. Much more is explained through words or verbalization, instead of the context. In contrast, in a high context culture many more things are left unsaid, and it is expected that they are implicitly understood; in effect, the culture itself explains them, leaving outsiders at much more of a loss communication is indirect
no need to specify everything
communication is direct
explicit
coding in verbal language
"Culture hides more than it reveals and strangely enough what it hides, it hides most effectively from it’s own participants. Years of study have convinced me that the real job is not to understand foreign culture but to understand our own" - Edward T. Hall MONOCHRONIC CULTURES VS
POLYCHRONIC CULTURES Monochronic cultures like to do just one thing at a time. They value a certain orderliness and sense of there being an appropriate time and place for everything. They do not value interruption Polychronic cultures like to do multiple things at the same time. A manager's office in a polychronic culture typically has an open door, a ringing phone and a meeting all going on at the same time. Monochrons see time as being divided into fixed elements that can be organized, quantified and scheduled. To a polychron, exact times are not really meaningful and, hence, are not all that important. UNIVERSALISTIC CULTURES VS
PARTICULARISTIC CULTURES DEFINITION: In universalistic cultures, the rules apply equally to everyone. In a more particularistic culture, human relationships are considered to be more important than rules. if a person is in a difficult situation the law can be overlooked. The emphasis is on the spirit of the law rather than the letter of the law. In universalistic cultures, the rules apply equally to everyone. If there are any exceptions, then the rules will become useless. SPECIFIC CULTURES VS
DIFFUSED CULTURES DEFINITION: In what is called a specific culture, individuals are open to sharing a large public space with others and a small private space they guard closely and share with only friends and associates.

DEFINITION: A diffuse culture features similarly sized public and private spaces. Like most introverts, diffuse culture people guard both spaces carefully, because entry into public space also affords entry into private space.

What is more important?
Rules or relationships? Do we display our emotions? How separate can we keep our private
and working lives? Do we do things one at a time
or several things at once? DEFINITION: The way we perceive time, structure our time and react to time is a powerful communication tool, and helps set the stage for the communication process. What are cultural clashes? WHAT IS CULTURE? HOW DOES IT INFLUENCE MARKETING, COMMUNICATION AND DESIGN? VALUES ARE DETERMINANTS OF BEHAVIOURS MASCULINITY VS FENINITY SPECIFIC CULTURES VS
DIFFUSED CULTURES DEFINITION: In what is called a specific culture, individuals are open to sharing a large public space with others and a small private space they guard closely and share with only friends and associates.

DEFINITION: A diffuse culture features similarly sized public and private spaces. Like most introverts, diffuse culture people guard both spaces carefully, because entry into public space also affords entry into private space.

How separate can we keep our private
and working lives? DEFINITION
Masculinity versus its opposite, femininity refers to the distribution of roles between the genders High Masculinity: gender roles are very distinct. High competition, success, money, managers are authoritative. The man has to be strong, the woman kind. Conflict resolution happens thank's to quarrels, "fights". Ex: Japan High Femininity: gender roles are very interchangeble. Solidarity, quality of life, quality of work. Managers seek consensus. Humility and modesty are important in both genders. Conflict resolution happens thank's to negotiations. Ex: Norway
" Culture is more often a source of conflict than of synergy. Cultural differences are a nuisance at best and often a disaster." Prof. Geert Hofstede, Emeritus Professor, Maastricht University. POWER DISTANCE DEFINITION
Power distance Index measures the extent to which the less powerful members of organizations and institutions (like the family) accept and expect that power is distributed unequally. This represents inequality (more versus less), but defined from below, not from above. It suggests that a society’s level of inequality is endorsed by the followers as much as by the leaders. LOW POWER DISTANCE: flexible hierarchies. more egalitarian in power distribution (on merit). Leaders are democratic, partecipative. Employees expect to be consulted and participate. Inequalities between people are fought Ex: USA; Canada HIGH POWER DISTANCE: structures are organized in hierarchies, employees expect to be told what to do, leaders are authoritative, inequalities are necessary and desired. Ex: Hong Kong, Japan, South Korea
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