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REL1300 Chapter 3 Hinduism

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Shafir Lobb

on 7 September 2016

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Transcript of REL1300 Chapter 3 Hinduism

Living Religions
Chapter 3
Hinduism

Rel 1300
Rabbi Shafir Lobb, PhD

Chapter 3
Hinduism


Philosophical and metaphysical origins

Major philosophical systems

Religious foundations and
theistic paths

The Hindu way of life

Hinduism in the modern world

sutra
Tantra
Vaisnavite
yoga

karma
moksha
prana
puja
reincarnation
rishi
Shaivite
Shakta
samsara
Sannyasin
Sanskrit
secularism


Key terms
ashram
atman
avatar
bhakti
Brahman
brahmin
caste
chakra
darsan
deva
dharma
guru
Kali Yuga

“In the beginning there was Existence alone--One only, without a second. He, the One, thought to himself: Let me be many, let me grow forth. Thus out of himself he projected the universe, and having projected out of himself the universe, he entered every being. All that is has its self in him alone. Of all things he is the subtle essence. He is the truth. He is the self. And that....THAT ART THOU.”

Chandogya Upanishad

“In the beginning there was Existence alone--One only, without a second. He, the One, thought to himself: Let me be many, let me grow forth. Thus out of himself he projected the universe, and having projected out of himself the universe, he entered every being. All that is has its self in him alone. Of all things he is the subtle essence. He is the truth. He is the self. And that....THAT ART THOU.”
Chandogya Upanishad

“There is no truth superior to Me. Everything rests upon Me, as pearls are strung on a thread....
I am the taste of water, the light of the sun and the moon, the syllable om in Vedic mantras; I am the sound in ether and ability in man....
All states of being —
goodness, passion, or
ignorance -- are
manifested by My energy.
I am, in one sense,
everything -- but I am
independent. I am not
under the modes of this
material nature.”

Bhagavad Gita

Timeline
Traditionally, Vedas heard by rishis
Indus Valley civilization
Supposed Aryan invasions of N. India
Early Vedas composed
Upanishads systematized by Vyasa
Ramayana (present form)
Mahabharata (present form)
Traditionally, Patanjali edits Yoga Sutras
Code of Manu compiled
Bhakti movement flourishes
Muslim invasions begin
Shankara reorganizes Vedanta
Mogul Empire
Life of Ramakrishna
British rule of India

c. 8000-6000 BCE
c. 2500-1500
c. 2000-900
c. 1500
c. 1000-500 BCE
c. 400 BCE-200 CE
c. 400 BCE-400 CE
200 BCE
100-300 CE
c. 600-1800
711
c. 788-820
1556-1707
1836-1886
1857-1947

Some scholars claim there is no central tradition that can be identified as Hinduism
The term Hinduism did not become common until the 19th century
A range of practices
that vary according to
region, caste, gender,
and education
The philosophic Brahmanic tradition often referred to as Hinduism is but one aspect of a larger tradition

Introduction

Brahmanic tradition traces
back to the Vedic age,
thousands of years ago
The Indus Valley Civilization
The history and precise
dating of this period is
controversial
The Vedas
Foundation of upper-caste Brahmanic Hinduism
Revered collection of ancient sacred hymns
The Rig Veda is the first & oldest of 4 collections

Philosophical and Metaphysical Origins

Vedic fire sacrifices have been made for over 3000 years.

Share
Roots in the vedas
Direct personal experience
of truth thru meditation
Ethics as necessary to
orderly social life (related to karma)
Suffering is due to ignorance of the
eternal self

Major Philosophical Systems
Samkhya: Two states of reality
Purusha, the Self
Prakriti, the cause of the material universe
Advaita Vedanta
Monistic
Based on the
Upanishads
Yoga: raja, jnana,
karma, bhakti
Union with the true Self

Major Philosophical Systems (continued)
Kali dancing on the corpse of Shiva can represent the Samkhya philosophy, in which Purusha, the Self, is omniscient but impotent, and Prakriti, matter, is powerful but ignorant.

Three major groupings of deities worshipped by Hindus

Shaktas: worship a Mother Goddess
Shaivites: worship the god Shiva
Vaishnavites: worship the god Vishnu
Religious Foundations and Theistic Paths
Yogi meditating in the Himalaya Mountains near the home of Shiva at the source of the Ganges River.

Illustrate trend
toward personal
love for a deity
Two major epics
Ramayana
Mahabharata (includes the Bhagavad-Gita
The Puranas
Poetic Sanskrit texts that narrate the myths of ancient times

The Epics and Puranas
Ritual: central to Hinduism
Castes, duties, and
life goals
4 occupational groups:
Brahmins, Kshatriayas,
Vaishyas, Shudras
Untouchables lay outside the system
4 major goals for a good life: dharma, artha, kama, moksha
The Hindu Way of Life
Life stages: student, householder, meditation/study, renunciation
The guru: spiritual leader
Women’s duties: dharma,
marital wealth,
sensual pleasure
Fasts, prayers, and auspicious designs: determined by a complex lunar or solar calendar

The Hindu Way of Life (continued)
Reverence of trees and rivers
Pilgrimages
Festivals

The Hindu Way of Life (continued)
The 2001 Kumbha Mela was the largest ever gathering of people.

The Kumbha Mela 2013
Hinduism has been influenced by contact with Buddhism, Jainism, and later Islam, and Christianity
Modern movements: currently being challenged by social reform movements
Global Hinduism: Has spread through immigration and conversion

Hinduism in the Modern World

Hindu identity
Some link Hinduism with nationalism
India’s constitution enshrines secularism
According to the Indian Supreme Court, to be Hindu means
[next slide]

Hinduism in the Modern World (continued)
Acceptance and reverence for the Vedas as the foundation of Hindu philosophy;
A spirit of tolerance, and willingness to understand and appreciate others’ points of view, recognizing that truth has many sides;
Acceptance of the belief that vast cosmic periods of creation, maintenance, and dissolution continuously reoccur;
Acceptance of belief in reincarnation;
Recognition that paths to salvation and truth are many;
Recognition that there may be numerous gods and
goddesses to worship, without necessarily believing
in worship through idols;
Unlike other religions, absence of belief in a specific set of philosophic concepts.

Hindu Identity (continued)
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