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The verb

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Frida Dari

on 24 August 2015

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Transcript of The verb

There are three primary groups of Italian verbs, classified according to the ending of their infinitives:

First conjugation (
-are verbs
)
Mangiare (to eat)
Amare (to love)
Pensare (to think)
Indovinare (to guess)
Second conjugation (
-ere verbs
)
Temere (to fear)
Battere (to beat)
Credere (to believe)
Decedere (to die)
Third conjugation (
-ire
verbs)
Mentire (to lie)
Sfuggire (to scape)
Dormire (to sleep)
Sentire (to hear/to feel)
Most Italian verbs belong to the first-conjugation group and follow a highly uniform pattern.
Italian verb conjugation is affected by:
mood
person
tense
number
and occasionally gender
Mood (Il ModO)

There are
finite moods (modi finiti)
in Italian:

Indicative (
indicativo
), which is used to indicate facts
Noi
siamo
studenti (We are students)
Parlo
con voi (I talk to you)
Subjunctive (
congiuntivo
), which is used to express an attitude or feeling toward an event
Penso che
vogliano
uscire con noi (I think that they want to go out with us)
Non è necessario che tu
esca
di casa (It’s not necessary that you leave home)
Conditional (
condizionale
), which is used to express a proposition whose validity is dependent on some condition.
Comprerei
una macchina nuova, se avessi i soldi (I
would buy
a new car, if I had the money)
Mi
aiuteresti
? (
Would
you
help
me?)
Imperative (
imperativo
), which is used to give commands.
Vieni
qui! (Come here!)
Smettete
di parlare! (Stop talking!)
Tense (Il tempo)
present / presente
There are also
indefinite moods (modi indefiniti)
in Italian, so-called because the forms do not indicate the person:

Infinitive

(
infinito
) is the form ending in -are, -ere or -ire in Italian, and preceded by “to” in English (to eat, to run, etc.).
Nuotare
(to swim)
Dipingere
(to paint)
Starnutire
(to sneeze)
Participle (
participio
) is an impersonal form
(Insegnare)
insegnante - insegnato
Gerund (
gerundio
) is the form which expresses an action in progress
Cosa stavi
pensando
? (What are you thinking?)
Andando
a scuola, ho incontrato mio zio. (As I was going to school I met my uncle.)
Il verbo
1st
2nd
3rd
Singular
Plural
We use these endings to determine how to conjugate the verbs
In italian, as in many languages there are irregular verbs
Mood (Il modo)
Indicativo
-arE -ere -Ire
(Io/mandare)
(Tu/vedere)
(Lui/vestire)
(Lei/camminare)
(Noi/rispondere)
Voi/andare)
Loro/scoprire)
mando
vedi
veste
cammina
rispondiamo
andate
scoprono
present perfect/passato prossimo
Past participle with
essere
changes according to the
gender and number
of the subject.
-are → ato
-ere → uto
-ire → ito
Nino tutto il giorno. (lavorare)
Loro tutte le vecchie case. (demolire)
Io un terribile male di testa. (avere)
Luisa (partire) per la Sicilia, invece Marco (rimanere) a casa.
Luisa e Francesca per la Sicilia, invece Marco e Luigi a casa.
ha lavorato
hanno demolito
ho avuto
è partita
è rimasto
sono partite
sono rimasti
imperfect / imperfetto
-are -ere -ire
Mentre Giorgio (studiare), i bambini (guardare) la tv.
Loro lo (sapere) da molti anni.
Pietro (ascoltare) sempre con attenzione.
studiava
guardavano
sapevano
ascoltava
past perfect / trapassato prossimo
absolute past / passato remoto
-are -ere -ire
Nella seconda guerra mondiale gli USA (usare) la bomba atomica.
Nel 1989 i berlinesi (abbatere) il Muro di Berlino.
Petrarca (morire) nel 1374.
usarono
morì
abbatterono
Note that many regular -ere verbs have an alternative form in the first person singular, third person singular, and third person plural forms.
future / futuro semplice
-are -ere -ire
Noi (partecipare) al nuovo concorso.
Gli studenti (leggere) molti libri.
Voi (capire) le nuove regole.
parteciperemo
leggeranno
capirete
Simple tenses / Tempi semplici
compound tenses / tempi composti
-are ato
-ere uto
-ire ito
Tu non (mangiare) ancora.
Io (arrivare) in ritardo.
Voi (comprare) i biglietti.
avevi mangiato
ero arrivato
avevate comprato
preterite perfect / trapassato remoto
Prima che (atraversare) la Cina, Marco Polo tornò a Venezia
Cominciò a piovere non appena (rientrare) a casa.
ebbe attraversato
fui rientrato
future perfect / futuro anteriore
Domani a quest’ora, (finire)
Quando (diventare) grande farò il poliziotto
avremo finito
sarò diventato
Tense (il tempo)
Congiuntivo
Congiuntivo semplice
Spero che (tu/tornare) presto.
Qualunque cosa lui (decidere), sono d’accordo.
Basta che voi (partire) in orario.
Sarebbe necessario che io (studiare).
Vorremmo che voi (venire) a trovarci.
torni
decida
partiate
studiassi
veniste
Congiuntivo composto
Penso (andare) al cinema con gli amici.

Non credo che tu (sapere) la risposta.
sia andato
abbia saputo

Se (avere) più tempo avrei organizzato meglio le vacanze.

Se (lui/partire) il giorno prima non avrebbe avuto tutti quei problemi.

avessi avuto
fosse partito
Tense (il tempo)
Condizionale
Presente
Mi scusi, (sapere) dirmi dov’è la stazione?
Io (mangiare) se avesse fame
saprebbe
mangerei
Passato
Se avesse avuto più tempo, Sara (venire) a trovarti.
Mi dispiace, (dovere) dirtelo prima!
sarebbe venuta
avrei dovuto
Tense (il tempo)
Imperativo
(voi/smettere) di fare rumore.
Giulio, (chiamare) subito tua sorella!
chiama
Smettete
The verb
The verb is the nucleus in a sentence or statement.
In the simplest of definitions, a verb is an action.
What is a verb?
The three tenses that are most commonly referred to:
Present
is used to describe something you are currently doing.
I
drink
water
Past
is used to describe something you have done
You
drank
coffee
Future
denotes your intention to do something later
They
will drink
vodka
There are more than 370 irregular verbs in modern English, most of which occur when a verb is conjugated into the past tense.
There are many ways to classify a verb. We will start with the
mood
Indicative
In general, the Indicative mood is objective and certain.
It is used to talk about actions, events, or states that are believed to be facts or true.
It is very typical in speech for making factual statements or describing obvious qualities of a person or situation.
We are going to find all the basic tenses in the indicative mood


We will go to see a movie this Sunday.
I’ll follow you.

Subjunctive

In general, the subjunctive mood is subjective and possible (but not certain).
It is used to talk about doubts, wishes, the abstract, emotions, and other unknown and non-factual situations.
It is commonly used in making recommendations, giving commands, and talking about how things make you feel.
It is also used to express opinions about another action.


If I were you, I wouldn’t buy a house.
I wish I were more organized.

Imperative
We can use the imperative to:
Give a direct order
Give instructions
Make an invitation
On signs and notices
To give advice


Let’s go to see a movie this weekend!
Please stop bugging me!

Verb tenses
Verb Tenses
Like other types of words in the language, English verbs are not heavily inflected. Most combinations of tense, aspect, mood and voice are expressed
periphrastically
, using constructions with
auxiliary verbs
and
modal verbs.
Auxiliary verbs
Auxiliary verbs are also known as '
helping verbs
'.

The three most common auxiliary verbs are:

Be
Do
Have

I am leaving = Leaving is the main verb. Am is the auxiliary.
She has arrived = Arrived is the main verb. Has is the auxiliary.
Do you smoke? = Smoke is the main verb. Do is the auxiliary.
Modal verbs
Unlike other auxiliary verbs modals only exist in their helping form; they cannot act alone as the main verb in a sentence.
Verbs in French are conjugated to reflect the following information:
Tense
Aspect
Mood
Person

Number
1st
2nd
3rd
Singular
Plural
Auxiliary verbs (auxiliaires)
In French, the auxiliary verb is either
avoir
or
être
. All French verbs are classified by which auxiliary verb they take, and they use the same auxiliary verb in all compound tenses.
Mood (Le Mode)
Indicative
is the most common and is used to relate facts and objective statements.
Jean-Paul se réveille tôt le matin
(Jean-Paul gets up early in the morning.)

Imperative
expresses orders, requests, demands, invitations, prayers, wishes, permissions, or interdictions.
Mange ta soupe!
(Eat your soup!)

Subjunctive
deals with facts, intentions, processes, or actions that are thought about/reflected upon. The mental process frame is denoted by the subjunctive.
J’apprécierai que vous arriviez à l’heure
(I would appreciate that you arrive on time)

Conditional
is used to express the fact that the action/fact/process is subject to conditions, or that the statement introduced in the sentence is subject to doubt.
Si je savais jouer du piano, je pourrais donner un concert.
(If I knew how to play the piano, I could give a concert.)
Tenses (le temps)
Indicative
Imperative
Subjunctive
Conditional
There are three primary groups of French verbs, classified according to the ending of their infinitives:
Le verbe
Spanish verbs undergo inflection according to the following categories:
Tense: past, present, future.
Number: singular or plural.
Person: first, second or third
.
distinction: familiar or respectful.
Mood: indicative, subjunctive, or imperative.
Aspect: perfective aspect or imperfective aspect
Voice: active or passive.
Spanish verbs are categorized, appropriately enough in three groups:
mood (il modo)
Questo libro è (interessare)
Tempo (scadere)
interessante
scaduto
Tra il
dire
e il
fare
c’è di mezzo il mare.
(sbagliare) si impara.
(dormire) tutta la notte, il mattino seguente Nadia si sentiva riposata.
Sbagliando
Avendo dormito
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