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Unit I, II, & III Timelines

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Daniel Ramirez

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Transcript of Unit I, II, & III Timelines

The Foundation Era (8000-600 B.C.E.)
by Daniel Ramirez
P- Governments reflected past chiefdom organization. Governors were usually priests and warriors.

E- Economy was based on hunting and fishing. Maize, beans, corn, and squash were important crops.

R- Cities acted as religious centers. Temples had houses for priests, artists, and architects. There is evidence that the Olmec practiced human sacrifice, including that of infants.

S- Life reflected on creating god-like figures and usually involved agriculture. Common people lived in villages. They visited the cities on market days and festival days. Houses were made of wood and palm leaves.

I- Interactions were limited due to the north/south orientation of America. Trade still fluctuated between the Norte Chico civilization though.

A- Best known today for their carved colossal heads, the Olmecs were an important early Mesoamerican civilization which had much influence on later cultures such as the Aztecs and the Maya.

N- The Olmecs were located in southern Mexico, now present-day Veracruz.
Olmec Civilization
P- The Norte Chico civilization did not yield a strong authoritative power compared to the Nile River Valley and Mesopotamia. Collective chiefdoms abounded the civilization, which were ruled under certain theocratic extremes.

E- Economy relied mostly on agriculture, especially cotton and root plants. Fishing was also a major priority in the Norte Chico civilization.

R- Leaders of chiefdoms were usually tied with deities and other supernatural beings. Communal exaltation and ceremony were aspects of life in urban centers. People looked up to supernatural gods engraved in architectural

S- Not much is known about social life in this civilization. However, the civilization did go without pottery, arts and crafts, and a staple grain-based food item.

I- The only true interaction that archaeology provides lies in the trading of maize, or corn with Mesoamerica.

A- Technology involved architecture and the quipu, or a system of knotted ropes used as an early form of writing.

N- The Norte Chico civilization lied in what is now present-day Peru. This desert region received very little rainfall; however, small rivers were abundant. Urban life was prominent in the Norte Chico civilization, especially in the largest urban center known as Caral located in the Supe River valley.

Norte Chico Civilization
P- Egypt was centralized around centripetal authority. Pharaohs were the high class kings that ruled over the Egyptian civilization. However by 2400 B.C.E., land officials and nobles gained authoritative power. This was due to the pharaoh’s failure to influence the floods of the Nile. This became a shift in political power.

E- There was no true currency or coinage, for trade and commerce were the main economic entities structuring the economic base of the Egyptian civilization. The ancient Egyptian economy, based on redistribution and reciprocity, set prices in units of value that referred directly to commodities. Basically, trading prices were set in that one man may be trading his most prized cattle, but the buyer had to equally match the same worthiness of the seller’s commodity.

R- Pharaohs were seen as gods, for they were successful upon the journey to eternal life in the Land of the West, according to egyptians. The optimism of reaching a celestial happiness was prominent in the Nile River Valley. Additionally, workers in the Nile were extremely based on cultural beliefs. They constructed royal representations of gods like sphinxes and built great pyramid tombs for their pharaohs,

S- Unlike the monarchical oppression of Mesopotamia, lifestyles in Egypt were more lenient and free. Women and lower class servants were not as mistreated and possessed the opportunity to reach rebirth in the afterlife.

I- Egyptian civilization persisted mainly in trade and warfare. Egyptian trade routes down into African Nubia meant that civilians of the Nile River Valley would bring back riches such as donkeys, elephant tusks, throw sticks, and panther skins. Warfare in the Nile involved the chariot-driving Hyksos.

A- Much ancient artwork was devoted in the exemplification of the sacred and divine power of the pharaoh, like the Palette of Narmer, Mathematics was also advanced in creating the pyramids and other mysterious structures.

N- Geographically, Egyptian settlement was placed upon the proximity to the Nile River. The Nile River Valley was also divided into Upper and Lower Kingdoms. The lower kingdom was north at river delta, and the upper kingdom was south.


Nile River Valley Civilization
Mesopotamian Civilization
P- Politically, the Indus River valley was divided into city-states, like Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa. They were ruled by priest kings.

E- The economy of this civilization was mainly agricultural based. Textiles and irrigation canals along the Indus River provided for the clothing and crops of the civilization.

R- The main religious practices lied in polytheistic nature gos. The people of the Indus River Valley relied heavily upon the gods for fertile soils and prosperous harvests.

S- Socially, the Indus River Valley civilization was utterly peaceful. Free time was highly available. People would bathe in large public baths. Houses were one or two stories high made of baked brick, with flat roofs, and were just about identical.

I- Interactions were mostly involved in trade, for warfare was not a trait for the Indus River Valley civilization. Trade mostly involved a seal, which was traded with the neighboring Mesopotamians.

A- This ancient civilization must have had marvelous craftsmen, skilled in pottery, weaving, and metalworking. The pottery that has been found is of very high quality, with unusually beautiful designs. Several small figures of animals, such as monkeys, have been found. These small figures could be objects of art or toys.

N- The Indus River Valley civilization was located along the Indus River in present-day Pakistan.
Indus River Valley Civilization
P- The Chinese civilization mostly took place in the time of dynasties. Such dynasties, like the Shang Dynasty, were ruled by kings known as the “Son of Heaven.” These kings ruled by the religious ideology of the “Mandate of Heaven.”

E- Economy revolved around agriculture, especially the cultivation of rice. Trade was also a big part of the economy due to the famous Silk Road across Oriental China.

R- Religion revolved around ancient Chinese folklore and the newly introduced religions of Confucianism, Taoism, and eventually Buddhism.

S- Chinese civilians were based upon easy lifestyles in agriculture.

I- In early years, by the time of Confucius, Chinese people traded salt, iron, fish, cattle, and silk. To facilitate trade, the First Emperor instituted a uniform weights and measure system and standardized the famous Silk Road width so carts could bring trade goods from one region to the next. Through the famous Silk Road, they also traded externally: goods from China could wind up in Greece. At the eastern end of the route, the Chinese traded with people from India, providing them with silk and getting lapis lazuli, coral, jade, glass, and pearls in exchange.

A- Chinese art goes back to the neolithic period from which time we have painted pottery. By the Shang Dynasty, China was producing jade carvings and cast bronze found among grave goods.

N- This civilization was mostly part of the Northern China Plain. The Yellow River was important to this civilization.
Ancient Chinese Civilization
P- The first Mesopotamian civilization known as the Sumerians established one of the world’s first monarchies and bureaucracy. The Sumer civilization possessed legitimate monarchical authority over its civilians. Later absolute monarchies were Present in Mesopotamian city-states like Babylon. Each city-state was well-organized and was governed by a king (e.g. Hammurabi of Babylon).

E- Mesopotamia did not have a universal currency, but trade between city-states and civilizations was prominent. Agriculture, especially the cultivation of wheat and barley, was the major economic activity.

R- Mesopotamian gods and goddesses were moody and possessed human characteristics, rather than divine holiness as present in Christianity and Islam. The Epic of Gilgamesh described how pessimistically gods were for humans to achieve eternal life.

S- Lifestyles in Mesopotamia were organized and did not possess much differences for males. However, women and slaves of lower classes were treated with lesser rights. This meant that women had to be veiled for the protection of their chastity. Social stratification was also heightened with Hammurabi's Code, which described many regulations in the society such as "an eye for an eye."

I- Mesopotamia possessed major interactions in trade and warfare between city-sates, especially when involved with resources. A notable example would be the Akkadians overthrowing the Sumerians around 2330 B.C.E.

A- The original Sumers invented the concept of city-states, sailboats, the wheel, and water channels for irrigation systems. Sumerians established the world's first system of pictographic writing known as cuneiform. Complex mathematics were developed as well, for the Mesopotamians built complex ziggurats and other buildings.

N- Geographically, Mesopotamian civilization lied between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in present-day Iraq. Major urbanization and cities developed like Babylon, Ur, Uruk, and Lagash.


Timeline #1
The following events constitute the Foundation Era (8000-600 B.C.E.) of World History.
Civilizations (for fun)
Thank you for watching!
1000-8000 BCE- AGRICULTURE The Neolithic Revolution, which sprung nearly 12,000 years ago, brought a transformation to the technological lives of the Paleolithic. Agriculture added a wider range of food and nutrients available for the growth of new opportunities like growing populations, sedentarism, development of cities, states, civilizations, and empires, writing, literature, and social stratification. People were able to grow and prosper at a much faster rate than before. Intensification of resources helped provide the foundational pillars of which later political, economic, religious, social, interactive, academic, and natural lifestyles would be able to advance.
9000-8000 BCE- NATURE The earliest domestication of teosinte (a grass from which modern maize/corn subsequently developed in a process of adaptation and “genetic engineering” over thousands of years) occurs in southern Mexico. It may have been used for the sugary syrup found in its stalk as well as the nutritional values of its kernels.

9000-4000 BCE- AGRICULTURE
First agricultural breakthrough (Southwest Asia- Fertile Crescent): End of the Ice Age; barley, wheat, lentils, figs, goats, sheep, cattle, pigs

Agricultural breakthrough in Highland New Guinea: taro, bananas, yams, sugarcane

Agricultural breakthrough in China: rice, millet, soybeans, pigs, chicken, water buffalo
6000 BCE- AGRICULTURE Mesopotamia: Beginning of irrigated agriculture

5000 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Small-scale states in Sudanic Africa
4000 BCE- NATURE Domestication of horses in Ukraine/Southern Russia

3500 BCE- POLITICAL Emergence of Nubian civilization
3500 BCE- POLITICAL Emergence of Mesopotamian civilization
3400-3200 BCE- SOCIAL Nile Valley: Nubian Kingdom of Ta-Seti
3200-2350 BCE- INTERACTIONS Mesopotamia: Period of Independent Sumerian city-states
3100 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Unification of Egypt as a single state
3100-2600 BCE- POLITICAL/INTERACTIONS Nile Valley: Frequent warfare between Egypt and Nubian States
3000 BCE- ARTS & SCIENCES Mesopotamia: Earliest cuneiform texts; Beginnings of Bronze Age and early civilizations
3000-2000 BCE- AGRICULTURE Agricultural breakthroughs in Saharan and sub-Saharan Africa: sorghum, millet, yams, teff, cattle
3000-2000 BCE- AGRICULTURE Agricultural breakthroughs in Mesoamerica: Cultivation of maize, corn, squash, and beans, turkey
3000-2000 BCE- NATURE Cultivation of potatoes, quinoa, and manioc in the Andes
3000-1800 BCE- SOCIAL Norte Chico (“mother of civilization” of the Andes)
3000-1000 BCE- SOCIAL Indo-European migrations
2663-2195 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Old Kingdom Egypt (High point of Pharaoh’s power and pyramid building)
2500 BCE- SOCIAL Nile Valley: Nubian Kingdom of Kush established
2500 BCE- POLITICAL Mesopotamia: First Sumerian law codes
2350 BCE- INTERACTIONS Mesopotamia: First Mesopotamian Empire- conquest of Sumer by Sargon of Akkad
2300 BCE- ECONOMIC/SOCIAL Nile Valley: Egyptian commercial expeditions to Nubia
2300-1000 BCE- AGRICULTURE Maize cultivation spreads to South America (Ecuador, Peru)
by 2000 BCE- NATURE Maize cob reaches length of about six centimeters. There is evidence that corn was ground with stone mortars and baked in flat bread.
2000 BCE- SOCIAL Beginnings of Bantu migrations
2000 BCE- SOCIAL/POLITICAL Beginnings of Indus Valley and Chinese civilizations
2000-1000 BCE- AGRICULTURE Agricultural breakthrough in Eastern woodlands of North America: sunflower, goose foot, and sumpweed
after 2000 BCE- ARTS & SCIENCES Mesopotamia: Epic of Gilgamesh compiled
1900-1500 BCE- POLITICAL Mesopotamia: Babylonian Empire
1792-1750 BCE- POLITICAL/SOCIAL Mesopotamia: Reign of Hammurabi in Babylonian Empire
1650-1550 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Hyksos invasion and rule of Egypt
1550-1064 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: New Kingdom Egypt
1500 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Emergence of Egyptian empire
1500 BCE- AGRICULTURE Maize becomes the staple of Mesoamerican agriculture. Its cultural importance was reflected in its prominence in various myths and origin. Such stories among the Maya, for example, held that humankind was made first of mud, then of wood, and finally, and most successfully, from maize dough.
1500-1000 BCE- SOCIAL/ECONOMIC Beginnings of Iron working in Anatolia; Iron Age begins around 1300 BCE
1473-1458 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Queen Hatshepsut launches expeditions to Land of Punt, probably along the East African coast

1000 BCE- AGRICULTURE/SOCIAL Maize spreads to the southwestern United States as farming people migrate.
1000 BCE- ECONOMIC Beginning of iron working in sub-Saharan Africa
1000 BCE- SOCIAL Beginnings of the Olmec civilization
900 BCE- RELIGIOUS Chavin religious cult in Peru

900-612 BCE- POLITICAL/SOCIAL Assyrian rule in Mesopotamia
800-500 BCE- RELIGIOUS Hebrew prophets
800-400 BCE- RELIGIOUS Compilation of Upanishads
800-336 BCE- POLITICAL Era of Greek City-states
760-660 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Kush conquest of Egypt
by 750 BCE- SOCIAL Urban centers in Ganges Valley
722 BCE- POLITICAL Assyrian conquest of Israel
671-651 BCE- POLITICAL Nile Valley: Assyrian conquest of Egypt
Finally!
The Classical Era (600 B.C.E.-600 C.E.)
by Daniel Ramirez
Unit I, II, & III Timelines
by Daniel Ramirez
Timeline #2
The following events constitute the Classical Era (600 B.C.E.-600 C.E.) of World History.
The Post-Classical Era (600 B.C.E.-600 C.E.)
by Daniel Ramirez
Timeline #3
The following events constitute the Postclassical Era (600 C.E.-1450 C.E.) of World History.
800-336 BCE- POLITICAL/NATURE: This is the era of Greek city-states before the Greco-Persian wars. The Greek cultural groups like the Athenians and Spartans were not politically unified at all yet.
7th-6th Century BCE- RELIGIOUS: Life of Zarathustra. Also known as Zoroaster, the man founded the religion of Zoroastrianism. He supported monotheistic beliefs like Judaism and Christianity.

6th Century BCE- RELIGION: Life of the Buddha, Confucius, Laozi; beginnings of Buddhism, Confucianism, and Taosim.
553-330 BCE- Lifespan of the Achaemenid Persian Dynasty.

539 BCE- RELIGIOUS: Cyrus II of the Achaemenid Persian Empire allows Jews to return from exile.
500-479 BCE- INTERACTION/POLITICAL: The Greco-Persian Wars are taking place at this time. Various events like the Ionian Revolt took place as well.
500-221 BCE- POLITICAL: Political fragmentation and corruption is taking place in China under the "Age of Warring States."
470-332 BCE- The Golden Age in Greece unifies the city-states and helps forward infrastructure projects. Many philosophers, architects, poets, and other intellectuals would take advantage of such peaceful times.
399 BCE- INTELLECTUALISM: Death of Socrates via hemlock poisoning.
400 BCE- The Olmec civilization in Mesoamerica begins to decline.
383-323 BCE- POLITICAL: The Seleucid Dynasty arises.The Seleucid kingdom was a major centre of Hellenistic culture, which maintained the preeminence of Greek customs and manners over the indigenous cultures of the Middle East. A Greek-speaking Macedonian aristocratic class dominated the Seleucid state throughout its history, although this dominance was most strongly felt in the urban areas.
336-323 BCE- INTERACTION: Alexander the Great raids and conquers through the Persian lands, thus spreading Hellenistic Greek cultures.
334 BCE- Alexander the Great invades Persia
327 BCE- Alexander the Great invades India
321-185 BCE- POLITICAL: The Mauryan Empire is formed, but it soon falls by 184 BCE.
268-232 BCE- POLITICAL/RELIGIOUS: Ashoka reigns by the Mauryan Empire until the forthcoming crumble in 184 BCE.
221-206 BCE- POLITICAL: The Qin Dynasty unified China.
206 BCE- POLITICAL: The Han Dynasty in China is founded.
200 BCE-200 CE- The Roman Empire was at its height in political, economic, religious, social, commercial, artistic, and intellectual affairs.
200 BCE-500 CE: The Nazca culture arises in the Americas. Politically, the Nazca civilization has been described as a collection of chiefdoms occasionally acting in unison for mutual interest rather than as a single unified state. The culture is noted for its distinctive pottery and textiles, and perhaps above all, for the geoglyphs made on the desert floor commonly known as Nazca lines.
4 BCE-32 CE- RELIGIOUS: Life of Jesus and Crucifixion. The beginnings of Christianity began to arise.
100 CE- POLITICAL: Rise of Axum; The Aksumites developed a sophisticated civilization that contributed a range of innovations in the fields of architecture and ceramics. It developed the Ge`ez or Ethiopic script, which allowed them to leave a legacy of written material and was sufficiently Hellenized for its rulers to also speak Greek. It produced a coinage bearing legends in both Greek and Ge`ez, which name the successive kings of Aksum. From coinage and other inscriptions, a chronology of the period can be reconstructed, while oral histories also tell us something of the political structure of the Aksum state.
180 CE- End of Pax Romana; Pax Romana was a state of comparative tranquility throughout the Mediterranean world. The empire protected and governed individual provinces, permitting each to make and administer its own laws while accepting Roman taxation and military control.
184 CE- POLITICAL: The Yellow Turban Rebellion takes place along the Huang He River. It was a peasant revolt in China against the rules of the Han Dynasty, which would later fall.
220 CE- Fall of the Han Dynasty.
3rd Century CE- RELIGION/INTERACTION: After the fall of the Han Empire, Confucianism becomes ridiculed, so Buddhism begins to popularize in China.
3rd-5th Centuries CE- POLITICAL/NATURE: Early cities and states begin to develop in West Africa.
224 CE- POLITICAL: The Sassanid Empire is formed; The Sasanian Empire was the last pre-Islamic Persian empire, established in 224 CE by Ardeshir I, son of Papak, descendant of Sasan. The Empire lasted until 651 CE when it was overthrown by the Arab Caliphate. It is considered by the Iranian people to be a highlight of their civilization, for after the fall of the Achaemenid Empire at the hands of Alexander the Great in 330 BCE until the fall of the Parthian Empire, there was not be another state that truly felt ”Iranian".
312 CE- RELIGIOUS/ POLITICAL: Emperor Constantine converts to Christianity (through a dream).
333 CE- NATURE/POLITICAL: Roman capital moved to Constantinople. Real divides and dissimilarities begin to arise later on.
300 CE- INTERACTION: Beginning of Trans-Saharan Trade Routes.

4th Century CE- RELIGION: Introduction of Christianity in Axum.
300-700 CE- POLITICAL: The Moche civilization in Peru grew more dominate.
300-800 CE- POLITICAL: The Mayan civilization grew in numbers as well.
380 CE- RELIGION: Christianity was considered in being the official state religion of the Roman Empire.

400-600 CE- ECONOMIC: High wages and points in Teotihuacan.
476 CE- Fall of the Roman Empire.
527 CE- POLITICAL/ RELIGIOUS: Justinian rule of the Byzantine Empire
589 CE- POLITICAL: Rise of Sui Dynasty.
Finally!
622 CE- RELIGION: Founding of Islam through the teachings of Muhammad and the man's life.
650s CE- RELIGION:
The Quran became compiled. Such poetic verses and lines in the Quran are beloved by all Muslims.

656 CE- RELIGION: Emergence of Shia Islam, especially in Iran.
688 CE- INTERACTION: Withdrawal of Chinese military forces in Korea.

7th-8th Centuries CE- INTERACTION/RELIGION: Introduction of Islam and Arab culture in North Africa.
726-843 CE- RELIGION: Iconoclasm in Byzantium.
730 CE- INNOVATION: Printing invented in China.
732 CE- INTERACTION: Battle of Tours(end of Muslim move into France).
750-900 CE- INTELLECTUALISM: High point of Abbasid dynasty.
800 CE- POLITICAL: Charlemagne crowned as new "Roman emperor."
800-1000 CE- RELIGION: Emergence of Sufism.

845 CE- RELIGION: Suppression of Buddhism in China.
868 CE- INNOVATION: First book printed in China.
869-883 CE- SOCIAL: African slave rebellion in Iraq.
900s CE- RELIGION: Kings of Ghana convert to Islam.
950 CE- POLITICAL/SOCIAL: It has been 350 years since the Ancestral Pueblo people hitched along. It has been 50 years since Cahokia joined. Toltec civilizations are not as professional.
988 CE- RELIGION: Convertion of Kievan Rus to Christianity
960-1279 CE- Song Dynasty in China.
1000 CE- INNOVATIONS/POLITICAL/INTERACTIONS: 1. Gunpowder was invented in China. 2. Tale of Genji is written in Japan. 3. New monarchies in Western Europe 4. Completion of Bantu Migrations.

1095 CE- RELIGION: Launching of First Crusade
1099 CE- INTERACTIONS/RELIGION: Crusaders seize Jerusalem.
1206 CE- SOCIAL: Chinggis Khan beings Mongol conquests.
1258 CE- INTERACTIONS: Mongols sack Baghdad.
1271-1295 CE- SOCIAL: Marco Polo's travels.
1279-1368 CE- HISTORY/INTERACTIONS:Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty in a change.
1325-1349 CE- INTERACTIONS: Travels of Ibn Battuta.
1347-1348 CE- MEDICAL INTERACTIONS: Bubonic plague in Europe.

1368-1644 CE- POLITICAL/INTERACTIONS: Ming Dynasty.
1405-1433 CE- INTERACTIONS: Zheng He's voyages.
1438 CE- PROSPERITY/ECONOMIC: Rise of Inca Empire.
Finally!
800-500 BCE- RELIGIOUS: Hebrew Prophets would be spreading the word of God.
800-400 BCE- RELIGION: Compilation of the Hindu Upanishads. The Upanishads are summits of thought on mankind and the universe, designed to push human ideas to their very limit and beyond. They give us both spiritual vision and philosophical argument, and it is by a strictly personal effort that one can reach the truth.
509 BCE- POLITICAL: Founding of the Roman Republic. It all began when the Romans overthrew their Etruscan conquerors in 509 B.C.E. Centered north of Rome, the Etruscans had ruled over the Romans for hundreds of years.
Once free, the Romans established a republic, a government in which citizens elected representatives to rule on their behalf. A republic is quite different from a democracy, in which every citizen is expected to play an active role in governing the state.
300 BCE-100 CE- POLITICAL: Nubian Kingdom of Meroe is beginning to establish.
247 BCE-224 CE- Parthian Dynasty in the Middle East; At its height, the Parthian Empire stretched from the northern reaches of the Euphrates, in what is now eastern Turkey, to eastern Iran. The empire, located on the Silk Road trade route between the Roman Empire in the Mediterranean Basin and the Han Dynasty in China, quickly became a center of trade and commerce. The Parthians largely adopted the art, architecture, religious beliefs, and royal insignia of their culturally heterogeneous empire, which encompassed Hellenistic, Persian, and regional cultures.
320 CE- POLITICAL: The Gupta Dynasty is formed in India.
500 CE- NATURE: The banana maked it to Africa.
550 CE- Fall of the Gupta Dynasty/Empire
604 CE- POLITICAL: Seventeen Article Constitution in Japan
618 CE- POLITICAL: End of the Sui Dynasty in China.
850-900 CE- SOCIAL: Collapse of Maya civilization; decline of classical Maya.
939 CE- POLITICAL: Vietnam establishes independence from China.
912-961 CE- POLITICAL/SOCIAL: Reign of Abd al-Rahman III in Spain.
1054 CE- RELIGION: Great Schism in Christian Church (Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox-no veneration of idols-).
1066 CE- INTERACTIONS: Norman conquest of England.
1071 CE- INTERACTIONS: Battle of Manzikert (Seljuk Turks defeat Byzantin).
1206 CE- RELIGION: Delhi Sultanate in India.
1324 CE- INTERACTIONS: Mansa Musa's pilgrimage.
Sources:

Strayer, Robert W. Ways of the World: A Brief Global History with Sources. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martins, 2011. Print.

"Seleucid Kingdom | Ancient Empire, Eurasia." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2015.

Cartwright, Mark. "Nazca Civilization." Ancient History Encyclopedia. N.p., 23 May 2014. Web. 10 Jan. 2015.

Prendergast, Kate. "Axum: The Ancient Civilization of Ethiopia." - History. N.p., 7 July 2005. Web. 10 Jan. 2015.

"Global Village." Global Village. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2015.

Das, Subhamoy. "What Are the Upanishads? - Indian Philosophy." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 10 Jan. 2015.

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