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Chapter 10

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Elyse Viamonte

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Transcript of Chapter 10

Presented By:
Robert Rollins
David Zuniga
Kiani Walman
Hana Tafour
Elyse Viamonte
Andry Sanchez
SIGMUND FREUD
Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality
Psychodynamics
Psychoanalysis
Personality Structure
Personality Development (The Five Stages)


Big Five Traits
Personality Traits
Big Five Traits Theory
Culture Of Big Five Traits

Carl Jung
Personal & Collective Unconscious
Persona
Extrovert/Introvert
Adler:Compensation & Inferiority
Albert Bandura
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
Expectancies
Performance Standards
Self-Efficacy
Locus of Control

Personality assess
The Personal Interviews
Objective Tests
Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
Projective Test
 Rorschach test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)

Carl Roger's Theories
Actualizing & Self-Actualizing
Full Functioning person
Unconditional/Conditional Positive Regard
Maslow Pyramid
Chapter 10
Personality

Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Personality
Personality

is each individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persist over time and experiences.

Sigmund Freud’s theory believed that human behavior is based on
unconscious
instincts or drives

Psychodynamics
Psychodynamics

is the study of psychic energy and its transformation expressed in behavior.

Psychodynamic theories is designed to help individuals with a wide range of problems, but it is most effective in treating anxiety disorders.

Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis

uses techniques to encourage individuals to develop insight into their behaviors
.

Other examples of techniques.
Dream Analysis
Hypnosis
Word Association

Personality Structure
Sigmund Freud theorized that personality is formed around three structures:
the id
,
the ego
, and
the superego


Personality Development (The Five Stages)
Psychosexual Stages and their relationship to personality development are as follows;
oral
,
anal
,
phallic
,
latency
, and
genital
.

Fixation
is when sexual energy remains tied to a certain part of the body, which will prohibit an individual to reach a fully integrated personality.




1.
Is Sigmund Freud’s theory of human behavior based on which type of instinct?
a) Conscious
b) Unconscious

2.
What is personality?

a)An individual’s unique pattern of thoughts, feelings, and behaviors that persist over time.

b)An individual’s thoughts and feelings of which we are not normally cannot become aware.

c)An individual’s thoughts and feelings of which we are normally aware.

3.
Sigmund Freud theorized that personality is formed around what three structures?

a) libido, conscious, unconscious
b) psychodynamic, psychoanalysis, personality
c) id, ego, superego

4.
What are the five stages to personality development?

a) fixation, Oedipus complex, Electra complex, latency period, ego ideal
b) pleasure principle, ego ,reality principle, superego, libido
c) oral, anal ,phallic, latency, genital
Questions
Sigmund Freud’s Theory| Simply Psychology. (2013). September 3, 2015

Measuring the Unmeasurable. (n.d.) September 3, 2015.

Psychodynamic therapy. (n.d.) September 3, 2015.

Freud Psychosexual Stages. (YouTube) September 3, 2015.

Sigmund Freud: Id, Ego, Superego- Psychodynamic theory. (YouTube) September 3, 2015.

Word Count: 309

Sources
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
Cognitive-Social Learning Theories
is personality theories that view behavior as the product of the interaction of cognitions, learning and past experiences, and the immediate environment.

Bandura’s study began with the observation of children and their behavior.
The researcher tested the children for how aggressive they were by observing the children in the nursery and judged their aggressive behavior on four 5-point rating scales and the toys they were given to play with.
Children learn social behavior such as aggression through the process of observation learning - through watching the behavior of another person.

Albert Bandura’s theory on expectancies
In Bandura’s view, expectancies are what a person anticipates in a situation or as a result of behaving in certain ways.

Outcome expectancies are heavily inclined by the setting that the observer grows up in.
The expected consequences for a DUI in the United States of America are a fine, with possible jail time.

Albert Bandura’s Performance Standards
In Bandura’s theory, performance standards are standards that people develop to rate the adequacy of their own behavior in a variety of situations.

Bandura’s theory on Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy
is the expectancy that one’s efforts will be successful.
Bandura believes that an individual’s self-efficacy play a huge part in they achieve goals, are faced with challenges and how certain tasks can be handled.
People who tend to have a
high self-efficacy
believe that they can master any challenging problems, and believe that they can recover from any setbacks or disappointments.
People who tend to have a
low self-efficacy
are portrayed to be less confident and believe that when given a task they will not perform the task well and also leaves them to avoid performing any type of challenging task.

Bandura’s point of view on locus of control
Locus of control
is an expectancy about whether reinforcement is under internal control or external control.
An
internal locus of control
is where people tend to believe that they are in control of their own fate.
An
external locus of control
is where people tend to believe that they do not control their own fate.
Questions?
Sources
Bandura, A. (2015, 09 03). Wikipedia. Retrieved from Social Cognitive Learning Theory: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cognitive_theory
Mcleond, S. (2015, 09 03). Bobo Doll Experiment. Retrieved from Simply Psychology: http://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html
Morris, C., & Maisto, A. (2015). Understanding Psychology. New York : Pearson.
Word Count: 367
Personal Interviews
 There are two types of interviews; unstructured and structured.
 
Unstructured interviews
are used when the interviewer wants to learn why someone is seeking treatment and help determine that person’s problem.
The interviewer may pay attention to the person’s tone, body language, or tension when discussing a certain personal topic.
Structured interviews
are used to conduct more organized research on personality.
Here the questions are fixed, although not as personal as an unstructured interview. It still allows the interviewer to obtain comparable data from other interviewees.

Objective Tests
Objective test, or personality inventories, are conducted when psychologist want to avoid the skills of interviewing or observing. In most cases these are written exams that are administered and scored based on a standard procedure.
 Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire.
 Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2).

Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire
 A 374-question test created by
Raymond Cattell
which provide scores on the 16 traits he identified.

The sixteen traits consist of warmth, reasoning, emotional stability, dominance, liveliness, rule-consciousness, social boldness, sensitivity, vigilance, abstractedness, privacy, apprehension, tolerance to change, self-reliance, perfectionism, and tension. Each have their own evaluation.

Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-2)
Most widely used and thoroughly researched objective personality test was first published by the University of Minnesota Press. It contains 567 true/false questions.

Its original purpose was to aid in diagnosing psychiatric disorders. Still it remains an as effective diagnostic tool for detecting malingering, or faking a psychiatric disorder and for forensic evaluation of personality.

MMPI-2 is composed of over 120 scales. 2 examples are:

10 clinical scales; Hypochondriasis (Hs), Depression (D), hysteria (Hy), psychopathic Deviate (Pd), Masculinity/Femininity (Mf), Paranoia (Pa), Psych asthenia (Pt), Schizophrenia (Sc), Hypomania (Ma), and Social Introversion (Si).

Four validity scales. The Lie (L) scale which is intended to identify individuals who are purposely trying to avoid answering the question honestly. The F scale that detects unusual or atypical ways of answering the test. The Back F scale that is the as the F scale except used during the last half of the test. Lastly the K scale that is designed to identify psychopathology in people.

Personality tests consisting of ambiguous or unstructured material.
 Rorschach test.
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT).

Projective Tests
 A projective test, named after
Herman Rorschach
, composed of 10 ambiguous inkblots. How people interpret these blots is thought to reveal aspects of their personality.

The objective of the test depends on how a person describes the inkblots. It reveals deep secrets or information about that person. This helps determine their personality or deepest thoughts.

Before the 1970s, there were five primary scoring methods determined by how people responded to the inkblots. Those were the Beck, the Klopfer, Hertz, the Piotrowski and the Rapaport-Schafer systems.

Although it was said that these were Rorschach scoring system. It was discovered in 1969 by John E. Exner, Jr. that the scoring systems held hardly any comparisons to one another . As of 1973 Exner created a new scoring system that has become the new golden standard and only scoring system now taught.

Rorschach Test
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective test created by
Henry A. Murray.
It consist of 31 cards picturing one or more human figures in deliberately ambiguous situations. With this a person is ask to write a complete story.

There are two basic approaches to interpreting response to the TAT; nomothetic and idiographic. Nomothetic interpretation establishes norms for answers from subjects in specific age, gender, racial or education level then measuring a subject’s responses against those norms. Idiographic interpretation, which is more suited for TAT, evaluates the subject’s view of the world and relationships.

TAT results must be in relation to the background of the subject’s personal history, age, sex, level of education, occupation, racial or ethnic identification, first language, and other important characteristics.

Questions?
1. You are consulting a psychologist who asks you to take a personality test. She shows you picture of people and asks you to write a complete story about each picture. The test is most likely the:

A. Rorschach Test B. Thematic Apperception Test(TAT) C. MMPI-2

2
. The Sixteen Peronsality Factor
Questionnaire
was created by who?

A.
Raymond Cattell
B. Henry A. Murray C. Herman Rorschach


3. If a psychologist suspects a person to be “malingering” or faking psychiatric disorder she may decide to employ which personality test to evaluate their personality?

A. TAT B. Rorschach C. MMPI-2

Framingham, Jane. "Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)." Psych Central. Web. 5 Sept. 2015. <http://psychcentral.com/lib/minnesota-multiphasic-personality-inventory-mmpi/>.
Framingham, Jane. "Rorschach Inkblot Test." Psych Central. Web. 5 Sept. 2015. <http://psychcentral.com/lib/rorschach-inkblot-test/>.
Frey, Rebecca. "Mental Disorders." Thematic Apperception Test. Web. 5 Sept. 2015. <http://www.minddisorders.com/Py-Z/Thematic-Apperception-Test.html>.
652 Total Word Count

Sources
Trait Theories
Trait theorist asserts that people differ accordingly to the degree to which they possess certain personality traits.

We infer a trait from how a person behaves.
Dimensions or Characteristics
1.
Construction of a coherent picture of the individual and their major psychological processes.

2.
Investigation of individual psychological differences.

3.
Investigation of human nature and psychological similarities between individuals.

4.
Personality also refers to the pattern of thoughts, feelings, social adjustments, and behaviors consistently exhibited over time that strongly influences one's expectations, self-perceptions, values, and attitudes.

5
. The major theories include dispositional (trait) perspective, psychodynamic, humanistic, biological, behaviorist, evolutionary and social learning perspective.
The Big Five Traits
1.
Extraversion

Warmth, gregariousness, assertiveness, activity, excitement seeking, positive emotions.

2.
Agreeableness
Trust, straightforwardness, altruism, compliance, modesty, tender mindedness.

Big Five Traits
3. Conscientiousness/Dependability
Anxiety, hostility, depression, self-consciousness, impulsiveness, vulnerability.
4. Emotional Stability
Fantasy, aesthetics, feelings, actions, ideas, values.

Big Five Traits
5. Openness to Experience/Culture/Intellect

Traits are the language that we commonly use to describe other people.

It is scientifically easier to study personality traits than study such things as self- actualization and unconscious motives.

Questions?
1
. What are the Big Five Traits?

a)Extraversion, Agreeableness,Conscientious, Emotional Stability, Openness to Experience.
b) Personality, Introvert, Extrovert, Actualizing Tendency

2.
What is the definition of personality traits?

a) Dimesions or characteristics on which people differ in distinctive ways.
b) Five traits or basic dimensions currently


3.
What are four ways the Big Five Traits can be scored within the different regions of the brain?

a) five-factor model,facets, culture,introversion
b) neuroticism, agreeableness,conscientiousness, extraversion
Sources
1. What is the Big Five Trait Theory? (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015.

2. Big Five Personality Traits. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015.

3. The Big Five Personality Model. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015.

4. Understanding Psychology. (Morris, Charles) September 4, 2015.
Word Count: 521

CARL JUNG'S THEORY OF PERSONALITY
A
. Carl Jung expanded the role of unconsciousness.

B
. Carl Jung contended libido represented all life forces, not just pleasure seeking.

C
. Carl Jung believed that the unconscious consisted of personal and collective unconsciousness
Personal

Unconsciousness
includes our repressed thoughts, forgotten experience, and undeveloped ideas, which may enter consciousness .
Personal & Collective
Unconsciousness
Collective Unconsciousness
is part of the unconscious mind to all humans, a reservoir of the experiences of our species.

Persona
is the personality that an individual projects to, as differentiated from the authenic self.
Introvert & Extrovert
Introvert
is a person whose interest is generally inward toward his own feelings and thoughts.

Extrovert
is a person concerned primarily with physical and social environment.
Introvert & Extrovert
Carl Jung further divided people into rational & irrational individuals.

Rational Individuals
regulate their actions by thinking and feeling.

Irrational Individuals
base their actions on perceptions (i.e. sensation or intuition)
Carl Rogers (1902-1987) Was a humanistic Psychologist, he contended that men and women develop their own personalities in the service of positive goals.
A. Actualizing Tendency
, according to Rogers, the drive every organism to fulfill its biological potential and become what it is inherently capable of becoming.
It characterizes all organisms- Plants, Animals, and Humans,Rogers believed that all creatures strive to make the very best of their existence.
B.

Self-Actualizing Tendency
,
according to Rogers, is an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials
If you think of yourself as “intelligent” for example, you will strive to live up to those images of yourself.

Rogers Theory of Actualizing &
Self-Actualizing Tendency:
According to Rogers,
Fully Functioning Person
is an individual whose self-concept closely resembles his or her inborn capacities or potentials
Rogers identified five characteristics of the Fully Functioning person:
Open to experience
Existential living
Trust feelings
Creativity
Fulfilled life
To Rogers, A Fully Functioning Person are well adjusted, well balanced, and interesting to know. Often people who are high achievers in society.
Rogers Theory of a Fully Functioning Person
Rogers Theory Unconditional/Conditional Positive Regard
Unconditional Positive Regard
, according to Rogers theory, the full acceptance and love of another person regardless his or her behavior.







Conditional Positive Regard,
according to Rogers theory, acceptance and love that are dependent on another's behaving in certain ways and on fulfilling certain conditions.

Maslow Pyramid
Abraham Maslow (1908-1917) psychologist who was best known for creating Maslow's hierarchy of needs.
Abraham Maslow wanted an understanding to what motivated people.He believed people needed to set up a motivational system
Maslow believed that when people achieve one of their certain need, the person starts seeking out to fulfill their other need and so on.

Questions?
1.
True or False. Conditional positive regard is where a parents, significant others accepts and loves the person for what he or she is.

2.

Which one of these is NOT part of Rogers five characteristics of a Fully functioning person?
a) Trusting feelings
b) Creativity
c) Existential life
d) Fulfilled life
e) Hesitant

3.
Which one of these sentences is an Example of Self- Actualizing Tendency?
If you think of yourself as “Athletic” you will strive to live up to those images
a) A Person is happy and satisfied with life
b) A person lives in harmony with other people
c) Both B and C
d) None of the Above

4
.
True or False Friendship would NOT be one of Maslow's hierarchy of needs.

5.
Which one of these sentences is an example of Conditional Positive Regard.
a) Mom and Dad Stilled loved Robert even after he dropped out of law school
b) Mom and Dad payed more attention to Robert than Andry because he fulfilled his father's dream of becoming a lawyer.
c) Mom and Dad encouraged Robert in any decision he made
d) Both A and C

McLeod, S. (2007). Carl Rogers. Retrieved 2014, from http://www.simplypsychology.org/carl-rogers.html
Emrich, M. (2014). Abraham Maslow. Retrieved 2015, from http://www.muskingum.edu/~psych/psycweb/history/maslow.htm
McLeod, Saul. "Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs."Http://www.simplypsychology.org/. 2007. Web. 2014.
Work Cited
The Big Five Traits
The Big Five Traits can be scored in four ways.


Nueroticism
scores the region of the brain dealing with negative emotions

Agreeableness
scores the region of the brain related to awareness and intention of others.

Extraversion
scores the region of the brain involved with reward information.

Conscientiousness
scores the region of the brain related to the prefrontal cortex.
Alfred Adler
Alfred Adler believed that personality devleops through the individuals attempt to overcome physical weakness, an efort he called
compensation
.
Alfred Adler
Alfred Adler believed that some people become so fixated on their feelings of inferiority that they become paralyzed and develops the term
Inferiority Complex.
Questions
SOURCES
1.

What did Alfred Adler believe was the major determinant of personality?

a) Believed that personality develops through the individual's attempt to overcome physcial weakness.
b) Believed that specific archetype play social roles in shaping personality.

2.
What is the Persona?

a) Is the personality that an individual projects to, as differianted from the authenic self.
b) The unconscious as the ego's source of strength and vitality

3.
What is Collective Unconsciousness?
a) Part of the unconsciousness mind common to all humans, a reservoir of the experience of our species.
b) Our repressed thoughts, forgotten experiences, and undeveloped ideas, which may enter consciousness in an incidnent.
Alfred Alder Psych of Personality. (n.d.). Retrieved September 4, 2015.

The Collective Unconsciousness. (n.d.) Retrieved Septemeber 4, 2015.
THANK YOU
1.) Who is this presentation about?
A. Jung B. Bandura C. Freud D. Rogers

2.) What was the name of the experiment?
A. Bobo Doll Experiment B. Bell Salvation
C. White Rat Experiment

3.) What are the two locus of controls?
A. Happy and Sad B. Content and Non-content
C. Internal and External D. Night and Day

4.) What persons did the experiment study?
A. Children B. Adults C. Elderly
Word Count: 596
Full transcript