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perform mensuration and calculation
Transcript of perform mensuration and calculation
Read - Only Memory (ROM)
Read-only memory (ROM) chips are located in the motherboard. ROM chips contain instructions that can be directly accessed by the CPU.
Basic instructions for booting the
computer and loading the operating system are stored in ROM. ROM chips retain their contents even when the computer is powered down. The contents cannot be erased or
changed by normal means.
Is technically any form of electronic storage,
it is used most often to identify fast, temporary forms of
When the information is kept in memory,
the CPU can access it much more quickly.
Most forms of
memory are intended to store data temporarily.
Random Access Memory (RAM)
Random access memory (RAM) is the temporary storage for data and programs that are being accessed by the CPU.
RAM is volatile memory, which means that the contents are erased when the computer is powered off.
The more RAM in a computer, the more capacity the computer has to hold and process large programs and files, as well as enhance system performance.
LO. 1 Select Components to be Measured
Early computers had RAM installed in the motherboard as individual chips.
The individual memory chips, called dual inline package (DIP) chips, was difficult to install and often
became loose on the motherboard.
To solve this problem, designers soldered the memory chips on a special circuit board called a
SIMMs and DIMMs
SIMMs ( single in line memory module)
have 30-pin and 72-pin configurations.
DIMM (dual in line memory module) is a circuit board that holds SDRAM (synchronous random access memory) ,
DDR (double data rate) SDRAM and DDR2 SDRAM.
Double Data Rate (DDR) technology doubles the maximum bandwidth of SDRAM. DDR2 offers faster performance while using less energy. DDR3 operates at even higher speeds than DDR2; however, none of these DDR technologies are backward- or forward compatible.
Caches and Registers
are designed to alleviate this bottleneck by making the data used most often by the CPU instantly available
are memory cells built right into the CPU that contain specific data needed by the CPU, particularly the Arithmetic and Logic Unit (ALU). An integral part of the CPU itself, they are controlled directly by the compiler that sends information for the CPU to process.
Storage drives read or write information on magnetic or optical storage media. The drive canbe used to store data permanently or to retrieve information from a media disk. Storage drives can be installed inside the computer case, such as a hard drive.
For portability, some storage drives can connect to the computer using a USB port, a FireWire port, or an SCSI port. These portable storage drives are sometimes referred to as removable drives and can be used on multiple computers. Here are some common types of storage drives: Floppy drive, Hard drive, Optical drive and Flash drive.
A floppy drive, or floppy disk drive, is a storage device that uses removable 3.5-inch floppy disks. These magnetic floppy disks can store 720 KB or 1.44 MB of data. In a computer, the floppy drive is
usually configured as the A: drive. The floppy drive can be used to boot the computer if it contains a bootable floppy disk. A 5.25-inch floppy drive is older technology and is seldom used.
A hard drive, or hard disk drive, is a magnetic storage device that
is installed inside the computer. The hard drive is used as
permanent storage for data. In a Windows computer, the hard
drive is usually configured as the C: drive and contains the
operating system and applications. The hard drive is often
configured as the first drive in the boot sequence.
The storage capacity of a hard drive is measured in billions of bytes, or
gigabytes (GB). The speed of a hard drive is measured in revolutions per minute (RPM). Multiple hard drives can be added to increase storage capacity.
An optical drive is a storage device that uses lasers to read data on the optical media. There are three types of optical drives: Compact Disc (CD), Digital Versatile Disc (DVD) and Blu-ray Disc (BD).
CD, DVD, and BD media can be pre-recorded (read-only), recordable (write once), or rewritable
(read and write multiple times).
External Flash Drive
An external flash drive, also known as a thumb drive, is a removable storage device that connects to a USB port. An external flash drive uses
the same type of non-volatile memory chips as solid state drives and does not require power to maintain the data. These drives can be accessed by
the operating system in the same way that other types of drives are
Types of Drive Interfaces
Hard drives and optical drives are manufactured with different interfaces that are used to connect the drive to the computer. To install a storage drive in a computer, the connection interface on the drive must be the same as the controller on the motherboard. Here are some common drive interfaces:
IDE - Integrated Drive Electronics
also called Advanced Technology Attachment (ATA) is an early drive controller interface that connects computers and hard disk drives. An IDE interface uses a 40-pin connector.
SATA - Serial ATA - Serial Advance Technology Attachment
refers to the serial version of the ATA drive controller interface. A
SATA interface uses a 7-pin data connector.
SCSI - Small Computer System Interface
is a drive controller interface that can connect up to 15 drives. SCSI can connect both internal and external drives. An
SCSI interface uses a 50-pin, 68-pin, or 80-pin connector.