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Synthetic Elements

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by

Nicole Erb

on 22 January 2013

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Transcript of Synthetic Elements

By: Nicole Erb, Rachel White, and Monica Lam Synthetic Elements Synthetic Elements Unstable man-made chemical elements not found in nature.
All elements with an atomic number higher than 92 are synthetic elements. How Synthetic Elements are Made They are synthesized in the laboratory.
They are produced by the process of nuclear fusion.
Nuclear reactors or particle accelerators are used to produce these elements. Impact of the discovery of the Synthetic Elements Their discovery helped to fill the empty gaps in the periodic table; however, they were later produced for research purposes. Synthetic Elements They are radioactive in nature, which means they emit radiations and decay into other elements. Particle Accelerator Nuclear Reactor Giant machines that are capable of molding together particles with target particles to create a new element with a higher atomic number. These man-made elements are produced in very small quantities, one atom at a time.
The synthetic elements are difficult to make because of their changing half-lives going from minutes to milliseconds. The synthetic elements are created by combining heavy elements with light elements. Uranium-238 + Carbon-12 = Californium-250 Nuclear transmutation is the process of converting one element into another. Artificial radioactivity results when an unstable nucleus is produced by transmutation.
Irene Curie and Frederic Joliot discovered this phenomenon in 1933 while bombarding light elements with alpha particles from radioactive sources. Technetium is used in medicine, where it plays an important role in medical tests that use radioactive elements. It also acts as a catalyst in some chemical reactions.
Plutonium is used as a fuel in many nuclear reactors. The atomic bomb that was dropped on Nagasaki, in 1945, had plutonium.
Americium is used in smoke detectors. Uses of some Synthetic Elements Synthetic elements are often named in honor of a scientist or the place of discovery.

Curium was named in honor of the Curies.
Einsteinium was named in honor of Einstein.
Mendelevium was named in honor of Mendeleev.

Americium was named in honor of America.
Californium was named in honor of California. Is Berkelium a synthetic element? Sources: Kulkarni, Mayuri. "Synthetic Elements." Buzzle.com. Buzzle.com, 22 May 2012. Web. 10 Jan. 2013.

Doty, Scott. "Nuclear Chemistry." Http://www.oakland.k12.mi.us. Berkley School District, n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

Wolczanski, Peter, Dr. "Cornell Center for Materials Research." CCMR. Cornell University, 18 Apr. 2007. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

Welch, Keith. "How Are These Elements Created?" Jefferson Lab. N.p., n.d. Web. 11 Jan. 2013.

University of Wisconsin-Madison. "Particle Accelerator May Reveal Shape Of Alternate Dimensions." ScienceDaily, 4 Feb. 2008. Web. 12 Jan. 2013.

Hanna, James, and Heliu Dong. "Nuclear Power." Nuclear Power. N.p., 2011. Web. 12 Jan. 2013.

"Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot." Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot. Chemical Heritage Foundation, 2010. Web. 13 Jan. 2013.

"Glenn Theodore Seaborg." Glenn Theodore Seaborg. Chemical Heritage Foundation, 2010. Web. 13 Jan. 2013. The Joliot-Curies won the Nobel Prize for chemistry in 1935 for their artificial creation of new radioactive elements by bombardment of alpha particles on light elements. They correctly interpreted the continued positron emission that occurred after bombardment had ceased as evidence that "radioactive isotopes" of known elements had been created. Significance:
These isotopes rapidly became important tools in biomedical research and in the treatment of cancer. Irène Joliot-Curie and Frédéric Joliot Glenn Theodore Seaborg Glenn Theodore Seaborg was involved in identifying nine transuranium elements (94 through 102) and served as chairman of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from 1961 to 1971. In 1951 he shared the Nobel Prize in chemistry with the physicist Edwin M. McMillan. Significance:
Plutonium-239 was shown to be fissionable by bombardment with slow neutrons and therefore became the newest material from which a nuclear bomb could be constructed. (Nagasaki) Fun Fact: A small amount of Einsteinium was used to create Mendelevium. Curie Radiation Therapy Is Curium a synthetic element?
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