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The European Union

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Barbara Daniel

on 30 October 2013

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Transcript of The European Union

The European Union
What is it?
The European Union is the economical and political union of 28 nations that are located mostly in Europe.
Goals:
Establishing a common market.
Guaranteeing the freedom and movement of people, goods, services, and capital.
"Unity is Diversity"
Avoiding war
Resolving conflict through peaceful means
Cooperation among nation-states
Who is in it?
There are twenty-eight member states of the European Union.

Who?


28 members
Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, and United Kingdom
Original 6
Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Luxembourg, and the Netherlands
Timeline
1945- End of World War II

1950- Creation of the Schuman Declaration

1952- Beginning of the European Coal and Steel Community

1958- The Treaty of Rome and the European Economic Community (EEC) forms

1973- New members added to the EEC; Denmark, Ireland and the United Kingdom

1979- Members states directly elect the European Parliament

1981- Greece joins the EEC

1986- Spain and Portugal join the EEC

1986-1991- Communist Regimes in Eastern and Central Europe collapse

1987- Single European Act (SEA)

1993- Maastricht Treaty goes into effect; European Union is established; Copenhagen criteria is announced



1995- Austria, Finland, and Sweden join the EU

2002- In 12 member states, Euro notes and coins are introduced

2004- Enlargement; Czech Republic, Estonia, Cyprus, Latvia, Lithuania, Hungary, Malta, Poland, Slovenia, and Slovakia become member states; leaders of member states sign the new constitution

2005- The new EU constitution is rejected by voters in France and the Netherlands

2007- Bulgaria and Romania join the EU; Slovenia joins the euro currency. Treaty of Lisbon is signed

2008- Cyprus and Malta join the euro currency

2011- March 2: Treaty on Stability, Coordination, and governance in the Economic and Monetary Union was signed
Top Contributors
1. Robert Schuman
"Schuman Declaration"

2. Jean Monnet
"Founding father of European integration"
Central role in developing proposals for European integration
Designed the European and Steel Community (ECSC)
Helped lay the foundation for the Treaty of Rome
Main Treaties
The Treaty of Rome
1958 (signed 1957)
The Single European Act
1987
Maastricht Treaty
1993
Copenhagen Criteria
Came into existence June 1993
Candidate Country:
achieve stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, rule of law, human rights and respect for minorities
functioning market economy
the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the union
adherence to the aims of political, economic and monetary union
What happened with Turkey?
Turkey has been trying to enter the EU since 1963
Formally applied for admittance in 1987
Pro admittance: Strengthen relations between Europe and Islamic countries, which would show that a democratic Muslim country is achievable
Con admittance: Does not fit into Europe's predominantly Westernized and Christian culture
What is a superpower?
A superpower is a powerful and influential nation that has the ability to project power on the international community. It has to be a leader not only militarily, but also an economic power.
Organization
Broad priorities set by the European Council; brings together national and EU- level leaders
Directly elected MEPs represent European citizens in the European Parliament
Interests of the EU as a whole are promoted by the European Commission
Governments defend their own country's national interests in the Council of the European Union
Seven Main Institutions
European Commission
"Executive" institution
Initiates legislation
Implements EU policy and administers the budget
Ensures compliance with EU law
Negotiates international treaties
European Parliament
Represents the EU's citizens; directly elected by them
MEP's
# of representative directly proportional to the population of each member state
Legislative
Passes laws jointly with the council
Council of the European Union(Ministers)
Often "co-legislates" with the European Parliament
Ministers are representatives of their nation-state governments
Different councils of Ministers depending upon which issues are being discussed
European Council
Summit of the heads of government
Gives impetus for the development
Sets out general objectives and priorities
Will not legislate
Court of Justice of the European Union
Judiciary
Ensure uniformity if interpretation of European law
Power to decide legal disputes between EU member states, EU institutions, businesses and individuals
Breaks down into three:
The Court of Justice
General court
The European Central Bank
European Court of Auditors
Financial Auditor
Examines the proper use of revenue and expenditure of the EU institution
European Central Bank
Monetary executive
Determining the monetary policy of the EU
Ensures price stability in the eurozone by controlling money supply.
Realist Perspective
The most important form of power is military power. States are the most important actors. A strong military exists. Power is constantly accumulating to ensure security. Political Power is the underlying ambition. Primary interest is self-preservation.
Liberalism Perspective
Liberty and equality exists. Support ideas guarantee human rights to its citizens and a humanitarian to the world. Incorporates democratic principals. Globalization is an important aspect within the community. Military power is not the biggest area of power. Economic and social power are extremely important.
Idealism
The internal political philosophy is the goal of its foreign policy. Ethical behaviors and moral goals are extremely important.
Our thoughts/ Questions?
Our thoughts: Is the EU a superpower? Yes and no. The EU has had a lot of success economically, but it doesn't have a specified military organization nor is its goal to have one. Will it ever be? The EU was originally designed to avert war between European countries. If it pursued the goal of becoming a strong military force, could it in return lose its ultimate purpose for existence. If you are looking at the EU for a economic and social aspect, then it would be definitely considered a superpower, but it lacks other aspects that are needed to truly be dominant.




The Treaty of Amsterdam
1999
The Treaty of Nice
2003
Lisbon Treaty
2007
Questions?
Questions:
1. Do you believe that the EU is a superpower? Why or Why not?
2. What has ultimately led to its success?
3. Do you think that its ability to increase cooperation among its members states has contributed this success?
4. What policy changes do you think should be implemented to make it better?
Pros/Cons
Pros:
EU has contributed to peace and security on the European continent for more than 50 years
Created more economic growth with the idea of free trade
Strengthened democracy and human rights
Cons:
Absence of a strong foreign policy and has no permanent military force of its own
Has always been based on legal treaties and law. It has never had a formal constitution
Growth rates, Unemployment, and Poverty
Full transcript