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Nuclear Physics

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Nipar AP Chemistry

on 14 May 2014

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Transcript of Nuclear Physics

What is Nuclear Physics?
Nuclear Physics
Advika Dani, Emily Strang, Miquela Goodson, Fahmi Monsur, Alex Price (less)

Gluons
are the particles involved in strong forces between particles.
These particles allow effective forces only at short distances (10^-13 cm).
This force is not caused by charge related properties.
The exchange of large particles,
W
and
Z
, cause a weak force.

W
has a mass 70 times the proton and
Z
has a mass 90 times the proton.

The weak force is also not charge related and it is 100 times weaker than the strong force.
Strong Force
: It is not charge related and is only effective at short distances (10^-13 cm). (gluons)
Weak Force:
It is 100 times weaker than the strong force (W and Z)
Electromagnetic Force:
classical electrostatic force between particles. (photons)
Gravitational Force:
the force of gravity (gravitons).

All forces in nuclear physics are generated by an exchange in
particles.

E= MC^2
energy= (mass)(speed of light)^2
Matter can be converted from one form (energy) to another (particulate) in particle accelerators.
Nuclear physics helps us understand how matter interacts.

Four Main Forces
Strong Force
Weak Force
What is the collision process?
An antiproton is a particle which has the same mass as a proton but the opposite (-) charge.
Electromagnetic Force
The exchange of
photons
allow electromagnetic force.

Electromagnetic force is the electrostatic force between
charged
particles.
Gravitational Force
Gravitons
carry gravitational forces.

Gravitational force, unlike the other three forces, do
NOT
occur in the nucleus.
Classes of Particles
Hadrons
: particles that respond to the strong force and have internal structure.

Leptons
: particles that do not respond to the strong force and have no internal structure.

Quarks
: they have no internal structure and they make up hadrons. Neutrons and protons are hadrons that are made up of 3 quarks each.
Applications of Nuclear Physics
Particle physics discovered new properties of matter such as "
color
," "
charm
," and "
strangeness
," creating new conservation laws.
Einstein looked for ways to combine the electromagnetic and gravitational forces, but he failed.

Colliisions between high speed particles into new particles are interpreted as the conversion of kinetic energy into particles.
Ambiguity of Nuclear Physics
Zumbdahl agrees in the Chemistry textbook that a full understanding of nuclear physics does not exist. So we cannot apply it to many places, but people think that it could allow revolutionizing energy and communication. So, consequently, we, along with Einstein, do not fundamentally understand nuclear physics.
Full transcript