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African American History Timeline 1619-2008
Transcript of African American History Timeline 1619-2008
The first African American indentured
servants arrive in the American colonies.
Eli Whitney's cotton gin increases the need for slaves.
Congress bans further imprtation of slaves.
Approximately 75,000 slaves escape to the North using the Underground Railroad.
Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery and becomes an instumental leader of the Undergroung Railroad.
Congress passes Fugitive Slave Act and mandates govenment participation in the capture of escaped slaves
The Dred Scot Vs. Sanford case: congress doe not have the right to ban slavery in the states; slaves are not citizens.
Abraham Lincoln is elected President , angering the southern states.
The Cival War Begins
Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclimation proclaims that all slaves in rebellious territories are forever free.
The Cival War ends. Abraham Lincoln is Assasinated. The 13th Amendment to the Constitution, prohibiting slavery is ratified.
The "Black Codes" are passed by all while legislators of the former Confederate States. Congress passes the Civil Rights Act, conferring citizenship on African Americans and granting them equal rights to whites.
The 14th Amendment is ratified, defining citizenship. This overturns the Dred Scot decision.
The 15th Amendment is ratified, giving African Americans the right to vote.
Plessy Vs. Furguson case: racial segregation is ruledconstitutional by the supreme court. The "Jim Crow" ("Separate but equal") laws begin, barring African Americans from equal access to public facilities.
Brown Vs. Board of Education case: stikes down segregation as unconstitutional.
Rosa Parks is arsted for breaking city ordinance by refusing to give up her seat on a public bus to a white man. This defiant actgives initial momentum to the Civil Rights Movement .
Martin Luther King Jr. and others set up the Southern Christian Leadership Conference, a leading engine of the Civil Rights Movement.
The Civil Rights Act is signed, prohibiting discrimination of all kinds.
The Voting Rights Act is signed , outlawing the practices in the south used int he South to disenfranchise African American voters.
Edward W. Brooke becomes the first African American U.S. senator.
Martin Luther King Jr. is Assasinated.
Barack Obama Becomes the first African American Persident of the U.S.
With the invention of the cotton gin, cotton became easier and much faster to remove the seeds from the cotton fiber. This invention gave southerners an excuse to expand slavery. Since there was a way to produce cotton at a faster speed, they needed more slaves to ultimately produce more cotton than they ever had before. This made cotton profitable. It transformed southern economy and killed the hopes of equality for the slaves. The first federal census of 1790 counted 697,897 slaves; by 1810, there were 1.2 million slaves, a 70 percent increase ("Growth and Entrenchment of Slavery." PBS. PBS. Web.). Because of the boost in southern economy, slave owners refused even more to give up their slaves. The cotton boom in the south also put the blacks in the south in danger.It was more likely for southern blacks to be captured and sold to slavery in the north. The cotton gin is remebered as a great invention that stimulated great economic growth for the U.S. however, it is bitter sweet because it futher encouraged slavery.
Although it was not President Lincoln's initial plan to abolish slavery, he did it to keep the country together. He did not have much support from legislators, or from the owners of slaves. After the winning of the battle in Anietnam, Lincoln granted freedom to the slaves in the southern states. The Emmancipation Proclimation did not free all of the states, it freed all of the slavesliving in the states that were not under union control at the time. Lincoln did this in order to punish the rebellious states. This would anger the southern states and force them to join the union once again. Freeing the slaves in the south also benifited the union because the newly freed slaves were now allowed to join the military. Lincoln destroyed southern society by attaking thier basic institution.
By refusing to give up her seat to a white man on a Montgomery, Alabama, city bus, Rosa Parks helped start the civil rights movement. She was arrested for breaking city ordinance but was recognized for her courageous action. Rosa Parks is an important figure in African American history because this event got people inspired to join the civil rights movement. With out this event occuring, the civil rights movement would not hav been as big as it was. When this event happened, Martin Luther King Jr. along with other supporters, began the movement. They began their fight towards equality and the abolition of racial segregaton. On November 13, 1956, the Supreme Court ruled that bus segregation was unconstitutional. The boycott ended December 20, a day after the Court’s written order arrived in Montgomery. Parks, had lost her job and experienced harassment all year.Althoughpunishments came with breaking segregation laws, Rosa Parks ultimately started the movement and so it was worth it.
After the incident with Rosa Parks, the civil rights movement rose. Over the following decade, Martin Luther King, wrote, gave inspiring speeches, organized protests, and what ever was in his power to draw attention to racial discrimination and to demand civil rights legislation to protect the rights of African-Americans.Also in 1964, partly due to the March on Washington, Congress passed the landmark Civil Rights Act. It essentially eliminated legalized racial segregation in the United States. The legislation made it illegal to discriminate against blacks or other minorities in hiring. These rules applied at public accommodations, education or transportation, areas which at the time were still very segregated in many places. In 1964, MLK received the Nobel Peace Prize. Because of him, African Americans recieved equality.
After Harriet Tubman escaped from slavery, she returned to slave-holding states many times to help other slaves escape. During a ten-year span she made 19 trips into the South and escorted over 300 slaves to freedom. She later became a leader in the abolitionist movement, and during the Civil War she was a spy with for the federal forces in South Carolina as well as a nurse.(Bellis, Mary. "Harriet Tubman - Leading Slaves into Freedom." About.com Inventors. About.com, 05 Mar. 2014. Web.) Whenever Tubman led a group of slaves to freedom, she put herself in great danger. There were many people looking for her because she was a fugitive slave herself. She was breaking the law in slave states by helping other slaves escape. She was very successful and never got caught. Harriet Tubman was also a big figure in Black History because of the sacrifices she had to make in order to help others gain freedom. There was always that risk that she would be captured but she did it anyway.